Friday, 28 November 2008

75228605 [?]Family and Literature [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $7.1 [?] Number of pages: 6 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 0:20 [?] Total: $42.6 [?] Number of sources: 1 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 2 days 9 hours 52 minutes Status: Order is available
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The instructions are: Write a well-developed, well-supported paper (about
1500+ words, or 8+ pages) focusing on a specific insight offered by the literature
on the subject of families and family influence.
Your paper should:
Include a detailed analysis of at least four texts, including a spread across
genres (i.e., not just the poems or stories); Contain a clear thesis which presents some insight into the theme as explored
in fiction; Contain detailed support from the literary texts, as well as the article where
appropriate; contain proper MLA citations and Works Cited. Here are some suggestions for your discussion:
1. Are we doomed to end up like our parents, whether we like it or not, or do we
make our own lives? Explore what literature has to say on this subject, and
compare the insights of the literature to the insights offered by Harris
2. Do children resemble their parents? Harris describes a number of
case-studies which show how children adopt the manners, values and language
of the wider culture over that of their parents. Where do we see this in what
youve read? What further insights does the literature shed on the nature of
`influence?` Can parents influence children in subtler ways, despite their
3. We often say that `Blood is thicker than water,` or that `unconditional love
gets us by,` but what do these phrases really mean? How do families make
contact with each other when language, culture, or personality traits get in
the way? Examine those aspects of the stories, the novel and poems that
permits people to stick together.
You can write about this article which I think has great inputs and the rest can
cover the poems which are short to read. If you have any questions please call
ARTICLE 1. Extracts from The Nurture Assumption. Judith Rich Harris. Simon
& Shuster, 1998.
[From the Introduction]
This book has two purposes: first, to dissuade you of the notion that a child’s
personality -- what used to be called ‘character’ -- is shaped or modified by the
child’s parents; and second, to give you an alternative view of how the child’s
personality is shaped. My arguments against the old notion and in favor of the
new one were originally sketched out in a 1995 article I wrote for the journal
Psychological Review. The article began with these words:
Do parents have any important long-term effects on the development of their
child’s personality? This article examines the evidence and concludes that the
answer is no.
It was a challenge -- a slap in the face, really -- to traditional psychology.
[From Chapter 1: “’Nurture’ is not the same as ‘Environment.’” Harris argues
that while people’s characters are indeed shaped by a combination of genes and
environment, the environment part of the equation -- ‘nurture’ -- is not
provided by the parents. Contrary to the popular ‘nurture assumption,’ the
parental environment (the home) does not socialize children.]
Socialization is the process by which a wild baby is turned into a domesticated
creature, ready to take its place in the society in which it was reared.
Individuals who have been socialized can speak the language spoken by the
other members of their society; they behave appropriately, possess the
requisite skills, and hold the prevailing beliefs. According to the nurture
assumption, socialization is something that parents do to children.
Socialization researchers study how the parents do it and how well they do it,
judged by how well the children turn out.
Socialization researchers believe in the nurture assumption. As I said at the
beginning, I used to believe in it too…. One day I suddenly found I no longer
believed that story.
Here are three of the observations that bothered me.
First observation. When I was a graduate student I lived in a rooming house in
Cambridge, Massachussetts. It was owned by a Russian couple who, along with
their three children, occupied the ground floor of the house. The parents spoke
Russian to each other and to their children; their English was poor and they
spoke it with a thick Russian accent. But the children, who ranged in age from
five to nine, spoke perfectly acceptable English with no accent at all -- that is,
they had the same Boston-Cambridge accent as the other kids in the
neighborhood. They looked like the other kids in the neighborhood, too. There
was something foreign-looking about their parents -- I wasn’t sure if it was
their clothing, their gestures, their facial expressions, or what. But the
children didn’t look foreign; they looked like ordinary American kids....
Second observation.... Generations of upper-class British males were reared in
a way that doesn’t make sense in terms of the nurture assumption. The son of
wealthy British parents spent most of his first eight years in the company of a
nanny, a governess, and perhaps a sibling or two.... And yet, when he emerged
from Eton or Harrow [boarding schools], he was ready to take his place in the
world of British gentlemen. He did not talk and act like his nanny or his
Third observation.... The fact is that children cannot learn how to behave by
imitating their parents, because most of the things they see their parents
doing -- making messes, bossing other people around, driving cars, lighting
matches, coming and going as they please... -- are prohibited to children.
...I still believe that children need to learn about relationships and rules in
their early years; it is also important that they acquire a language. But I no
longer believe that this early learning, which in our society generally takes
place within the home, sets the pattern for what is to follow. Although the
learning itself serves a purpose, the content of what children learn may be
irrelevant to the world outside their home. They may cast it off when they step
outside as easily as the dorky sweater their mother made them wear.
[From Chapter 2, “The Nature and Nurture of the Evidence.” Harris argues
that while evidence does show that parents tend to turn out like their parents,
this is not because of the way their parents treat them. On the contrary,
parenting styles make no discernible difference.]
In 1967, developmentalist Diana Baumrind defined three contrasting styles of
parenting. She named them Authoritarian, Permissive, and Authoritative,
but I have always found those terms confusing so I will call them Too Hard, Too
Soft and Just Right.
Too Hard parents are bossy and inflexible; they lay down rules and enforce
them strictly, with physical punishment if necessary. These are the
shut-your-mouth-and-do-what-you’re-told type of people. Too Soft parents are
just the opposite: they don’t tell their children to do things, they ask them.
Rules? What rules? The important thing, they believe, is to give children lots of
The third choice is Just Right…. Just Right parents give their children love and
approval but they set limits and enforce them. They persuade their children to
behave properly by reasoning with them, rather than using physical
punishment…. In short, Just Right parents are exactly what
end-of-the-twentieth-century middle-class Americans of European descent
think parents ought to be.
Baumrind and her followers have produced dozens of studies, all claiming to
show the same thing: that the children of the Just Right parents turn out
better…. [They] tend to get along better with other kids and other adults and to
make better grades in school. They get into less trouble in their teens. In
general, they manage their lives in a competent fashion -- slightly more
competent, on the average, than the children of Too Hard of Too Soft parents.
.… [But] Here’s what I think. Middle-class Americans of European descent try to
use the Just Right parenting style, because that is the style approved by their
culture. If they don’t use it, it’s because they have problems or their kid does. If
they have problems, it could be because they have disadvantageous
personality characteristics that they can pass on to their kid genetically. If the
kid has problems -- a difficult temperament, for instance -- the Just Right
parenting style might not work and the parents might end up switching to the
Too Hard method. So among Americans of European descent, parents who use a
Too Hard child-rearing style are more likely to be the ones with problem kids.
This is exactly what the style-of-parenting researchers find.
In other ethnic groups -- notably Americans of Asian or African descent --
cultural norms differ. Chinese Americans, for example, tend to use the Too
Hard parenting style -- the style Baumrind called Authoritarian -- not because
their kids are difficult, but because that’s the style favored by their culture.
Among Asian and African Americans, therefore, parents who use a Too Hard
child-rearing style should not be more likely to have problem kids. Again, this
is exactly what the researchers find.
What they find, in fact, is that the Asian-American parents are the most likely
of all American parents to use the Too Hard style and the least likely to use the
Just Right style, and yet in many ways Asian-American children are the most
competent and successful of all American children. Although this finding
contradicts their theory, the style-of-parenting researchers continue on
[from Chapter 4, “Separate Worlds.” Here, Harris argues that children learn
their socialization in specific contexts: they learn home behavior at home and
peer behavior out of the home, and they keep their responses separate.]
Children -- even preschoolers -- are remarkably good at switching from one
personality to the other….
…. My favorite example of a failure to transfer behavior from one context to
another involves picky eating -- a common complaint among the parents of
young children. You would think a picky eater in one setting would be a picky
eater in another, wouldn’t you? Yes, it has been studied, and no, that’s not
what the researchers found. One third of children in a Swedish sample were
picky eaters either at home or in school, but only 8 percent were picky in both
…. In North America and Europe, we take it for granted that we must teach our
babies how to communicate with language; indeed, we consider that to be one of
a parent’s important jobs. We start the language-learning process early,
talking to our babies the minute they’re out of the womb, if not before. We
encourage their coos and babbles and make a big deal out of their “mamas” and
“dadas….” If they make a grammatical error we rephrase their poorly formed
phrase into proper English (or proper whatever)….[Thus] By the age of four
they’re competent speakers of English (or whatever)….
…. [But] children of immigrant parents, like the kids of the Russian couple who
ran the rooming house in Cambridge… learn things at home -- most
conspicuously language but other things as well -- that prove to be useless
outside the home. Unfazed, they learn the rules of their other world. They
learn, if necessary, a new language.
Children have a great desire to communicate with other children, and this
desire serves as a powerful incentive to learn the new language. A
psycholinguist tells the story of a four-year-old boy from the United States,
hospitalized in Montreal, trying to talk to the little girl in the next bed. When
his repeated attempts to talk to her in English proved futile, he tried the only
French words he knew, fleshed out with a few nonsense syllables: “Aga doodoo
bubu petit garcon?” An Italian father living in Finland with his
Swedish-speaking wife and son tells of the time he took his three-year-old son to
a park and the boy wanted to play with some Finnish-speaking children. He ran
up to them shouting the only words of Finnish he had learned: “Yksi, kaksi,
kolme… yksi, kaksi, kolme” -- Finnish for ‘one,’ ‘two,’ ‘three.’
.… It is common for immigrant children to use their first language at home and
their second language outside the home. Give them a year in the new country
and they are switching back and forth between their two languages as easily as
I switch back and forth between programs on my computer. Step out of the
house -- click on English. Go back in the house -- click on Polish. Psycholinguists
call it code-switching.
.... “Many bilingual people,” reported Kolers [a psycholinguist who has studied
bilingual adults] “say that they think differently and respond with different
emotions to the same experience in their two languages.” If they use one
language exclusively at home, the other exclusively outside the home, the
home language becomes linked to the thoughts and emotions experienced at
home, the other to the thoughts and emotions experienced outside the home….
Personality theorists don’t pay much attention to language. And yet, language,
accent, and vocabulary are aspects of social behavior, just as ‘personality
traits’ such as agreeableness and aggressiveness are. Like other aspects of
social behavior, the language a person uses is sensitive to context, and this is
true for monolingual speakers as it is for bilingual ones. William James said
that a person “shows a different side of himself” in different social contexts and
gave as his first example the youth who swears like a pirate when he’s with his
friends but is “demure enough before his parents and teachers.” A high school
student tells this anecdote about one of his classmates:
A girl at my school was walking down the hall and remembered that she forgot
“Oh shoot!” she exclaimed.
As she looked around and saw her friends, she said, “I mean oh shit.”
The girl’s parents and teachers make similar adjustments to their verbal
behavior. They do not use the same vocabulary or sentence structure when
they’re talking to a teenager as when they’re talking to a two-year-old….
…. The children of people who immigrate to English-speaking countries usually
end up bringing English home with them, speaking English to their parents.
Here’s the son of Korean immigrants, describing how he communicated with
his mother: “She would mostly speak to me in Korean, and I would answer her
in English….” The same sort of thing happens, in a smaller way, in homes in
which everyone speaks English: I have heard a great many native-born
Americans complain that their children come home talking in the uncouth
accents of their peers.
If the immigrant parents insist that their children continue to address them
in their native language -- that is, the parents’ native language -- the children
may do so, but their ability to communicate in that language will remain
childish, while their ability to communicate in the outside-the-home language
continues to grow. Here’s a young Chinese-American woman, the child of
immigrants, who went to Harvard:
I had never discussed literature or philosophy with my parents. We talked
about our health, the weather, that night’s dinner -- all in Cantonese, since
they do not speak English. While at Harvard, I ran out of words to communicate
with my parents. I literally did not have the Cantonese vocabulary to explain
the classes I was taking or of my field of concentration.
Many immigrant parents see their children losing the language and culture of
their homeland and try very hard to prevent it….[But] They dream in English.
It makes no difference whether the first language they learned from their
parents was English or Bengali. English has become their ‘native language….’
.… Children appear to be motivated to keep their two lives separate. Child
abuse often goes undetected because children don’t like to talk about it when
they’re outside their home. They don’t want anyone to know that their home is
different -- that their mother beats them and makes them scrub the floor.
Conversely, school-age children often fail to tell their parents if they’ve been
victims of bullying on the playground…. But the motivation to keep the home
life from leaking out is stronger than the motivation to keep the outside world
from leaking in, and it is especially strong in those who have an inkling that
their home might be abnormal in some way. If their mother drinks, their
parents throw things at each other, or their father is an invalid, kids don’t
want anyone to know about it. The child of immigrants might avoid inviting
friends over to play. The kid whose parents are wealthier than their neighbors
may be as anxious to keep it a secret as the kid whose parents are poorer; what
they hate is being different from their peers.
[Harris argues that the children also learn different behaviors in different
contexts, and keep them separate.]
Seventy years ago a pair of ahead-of-their-time developmentalists tested
children’s ability to resist temptation. They gave the children opportunities to
cheat or steal in a variety of settings: at home, in the classroom, in athletic
contests; alone or in the presence of peers. They discovered that children who
were honest in one context were not necessarily honest in others. The child who
was honest at home might lie or cheat in the classroom or on the athletic field.
When children or adolescents misbehave outside their homes, they are
sometimes referred to as ‘unsocialized’ and their parents are blamed.
According to the nurture assumption, it is the parents’ job to socialize the
child. But if children fail to transfer things their parents taught them to other
social contexts, it is not the parents’ fault.
.… If you never go home again, the personality you acquired there may be lost
forever…. [But] Most people do go home again. And the moment they walk in the
door and hear their mother’s voice from the kitchen -- “Is that you, dear?” -- the
old personality they thought they had outgrown comes back to haunt them. In
the world outside they are dignified, successful women and men, but put them
back at the family dinner table and pretty soon they are bickering and
whining again, just like they did in the good old days. No wonder so many
people hate going home for the holidays.
ARTICLE 2. Annals of Behavior: Do Parents Matter? -- Judith Rich Harris and
Child Development
(Malcolm Gladwell, The New Yorker, 1998)
The idea that will make Judith Rich Harris famous came to her, unbidden, on
the afternoon of January 20, 1994. At the time, Harris was a textbook writer,
with no doctorate or academic affiliation, working from her home in suburban
New Jersey. Because of a lupus-like illness, she doesnt have the strength to
leave the house, and shed spent that morning in bed. By early afternoon,
though, she was at her desk, glancing through a paper by a prominent
psychologist about juvenile delinquency, and for some reason a couple of
unremarkable sentences struck her as odd: `Delinquency must be a social
behavior that allows access to some desirable resource. I suggest that the
resource is mature status, with its consequent power and privilege.` It is an
observation consistent with our ideas about what it means to grow up.
Teen-agers rebel against being teen-agers, against the restrictions imposed on
them by adults. They smoke because only adults are supposed to smoke. They
steal cars because they are too young to have cars. But Harris was suddenly
convinced that the paper had it backward. `Adolescents arent trying to be like
adults--they are trying to contrast themselves with adults,` she explains. `And
it was as if a light had gone on in the sky. It was one of the most exciting things
that have ever happened to me. In a minute or two, I had the germ of the
theory, and in ten minutes I had enough of it to see that it was important.`
If adolescents didnt want to be like adults, it was because they wanted to be like
other adolescents. Children were identifying with and learning from other
children, and Harris realized that once you granted that fact all the
conventional wisdom about parents and family and child-rearing started to
unravel. Why, for example, do the children of recent immigrants almost never
retain the accents of their parents? How is it that the children of deaf parents
manage to learn how to speak as well as children whose parents speak to them
from the day they were born? The answer has always been that language is a
skill acquired laterally--that what children pick up from other children is at
least as important as what they pick up at home. Harris was asking whether
this was true more generally: what if children also learn the things that make
them who they are--that shape their characters and personalities--from their
peer group? This would mean that, in some key sense, parents dont much
matter--that whats important is not what children learn inside the home but
what they learn outside the home.
`I was sitting and thinking,` Harris told me, looking bright-eyed as she
clutched a tall glass of lemonade. She is tiny--a fragile, elfin grandmother with
a mop of gray hair and a little-girl voice. We were in her kitchen, looking out on
the green of her back yard. `I told my husband, Charlie, about it. I had signed a
contract to write a developmental-psychology textbook, and I wasnt quite ready
to give it up. But the more I thought about it the more I realized I couldnt go on
writing developmental-psychology textbooks, because I could no longer say
what my publishers wanted me to say.` Over the next six months, Harris
immersed herself in the literature of social psychology and cultural
anthropology. She read studies of group behavior in primates and unearthed
studies from the nineteen-fifties of pre-adolescent boys. She couldnt conduct
any experiments of her own, because she didnt belong to an academic
institution. She couldnt even use a proper academic library, because the
closest university to her was Rutgers, which was forty-five minutes away, and
she didnt have the strength to leave her house for more than a few hours at a
time. So she went to the local public library and ordered academic texts
through interlibrary loan and sent for reprints of scientific articles through
the mail, and the more she read the more she became convinced that her
theory could tie together many of the recent puzzling findings in behavioral
genetics and developmental psychology. In six weeks, in August and September
of 1994, she wrote a draft and sent it off to the academic journal Psychological
Review. It was an act of singular audacity, because Psychological Review is one
of the most prestigious journals in psychology, and prestigious academic
journals do not, as a rule, publish the musings of stay-at-home grandmothers
without Ph.D.s. But her article was accepted, and in the space below her name,
where authors typically put `Princeton University` or `Yale University` or
`Oxford University,` Harris proudly put `Middletown, New Jersey.` Harris
listed her CompuServe address in a footnote, and soon she was inundated with
E-mail, because what she had to say was so compelling and so surprising and, in
a wholly unexpected way, so sensible that everyone in the field wanted to know
more. Who are you? scholars asked. Where did you come from? Why have I
never heard of you before?
At this point, Harriss health was not good. Her autoimmune disorder began to
attack her heart and lungs, and she sometimes wondered how long she had to
live. But, at the urging of some of her new friends in academe, she set out to
write a book, and somehow in the writing of it she became stronger. That book,
`The Nurture Assumption,` will be published this fall, and it is a graceful,
lucid, and utterly persuasive assault on virtually every tenet of child
development. It begins, `This book has two purposes: first, to dissuade you of
the notion that a childs personality--what used to be called character--is
shaped or modified by the childs parents; and second, to give you an
alternative view of how the childs personality is shaped.` On the back cover are
enthusiastic blurbs from David Lykken, of the University of Minnesota; Robert
Sapolsky, of Stanford; Dean Keith Simonton, of the University of California at
Davis; John Bruer, of the James S. McDonnell Foundation; and Steven Pinker, of
MIT--which, in the social-science business, is a bit like writing a book on
basketball and having it endorsed by the starting five of the Chicago Bulls.
This week, Harris will travel to San Francisco for the annual convention of the
American Psychological Association, where she will receive a prize for her
Psychological Review article.
`Its as if the gods were making up to me all that they had done to me
previously,` Harris told me. `It was the best gift I could have ever gotten: an
idea. It wasnt something that I could have known in advance. But, as it turned
out, it was what I wanted most in the world--an idea that would give a direction
and a purpose to my life.`
Judith Harriss big idea--that peers matter much more than parents--runs
counter to nearly everything that a century of psychology and psychotherapy
has told us about human development. Freud put parents at the center of the
childs universe, and there they have remained ever since. `They fuck you up,
your mum and dad. They may not mean to, but they do,` the poet Philip Larkin
memorably wrote, and that perspective is fundamental to the way we have
been taught to understand ourselves. When we go to a therapist, we talk about
our parents, in the hope that coming to grips with the events of childhood can
help us decipher the mysteries of adulthood. When we say things like `Thats
the way I was raised,` we mean that children instinctively and preferentially
learn from their parents, that parents can be good or bad role models for
children, that character and personality are passed down from one generation
to the next. Child development has been, in many ways, concerned with
understanding children through their parents.

In recent years, however, this idea has run into a problem. In a series of careful
and comprehensive studies (among them the famous Minnesota studies of
twins separated at birth) behavioral geneticists have concluded that about
fifty per cent of the personality differences among people--traits such as
friendliness, extroversion, nervousness, openness, and so on--are attributable
to our genes, which means that the other half must be attributable to the
environment. Yet when researchers have set out to look for this
environmental influence they havent been able to find it. If the example of
parents were important in a childs development, youd expect to see a
consistent difference between the children of anxious and inexperienced
parents and the children of authoritative and competent parents, even after
taking into account the influence of heredity. Children who spend two hours a
day with their parents should be different from children who spend eight
hours a day with their parents. A home with lots of books should result in a
different kind of child from a home with very few books. In other words,
researchers should have been able to find some causal link between the specific
social environment parents create for their children and the way those
children turn out. They havent.
One of the largest and most rigorous studies of this kind is known as the
Colorado Adoption Project. Between 1975 and 1982, a group of researchers at the
University of Colorado, headed by Robert Plomin, one of the worlds leading
behavioral geneticists, recruited two hundred and forty-five pregnant women
from the Denver area who planned to give up their children for adoption. The
researchers then followed the children into their new homes, giving them a
battery of personality and intelligence tests at regular intervals throughout
their childhood and giving similar tests to their adoptive parents. For the sake
of comparison, the group also ran the same set of tests on a control group of two
hundred and forty-five parents and their biological children. For the latter
group, the results were pretty much as one might expect: in intellectual ability
and certain aspects of personality, the kids proved to be fairly similar to their
parents. The scores of the adopted kids, however, had nothing whatsoever in
common with the scores of their adoptive parents: these children were no more
similar in personality or intellectual skills to the people who reared them, fed
them, clothed them, read to them, taught them, and loved them all their lives
than they were to any two adults taken at random off the street.
Here is the puzzle. We think that children resemble their parents because of
both genes and the home environment, both nature and nurture. But, if
nurture matters even a little, why dont the adopted kids have at least some
greater-than-chance similarities to their adoptive parents? The Colorado
study says that the only reason we are like our parents is that we share their
genes, and that--by any measures of cognition and personality--when there is
no genetic inheritance there is no resemblance.
This is the question that so preoccupied Harris on that winter morning four
and a half years ago. She knew that most people in psychology had responded to
findings like those of the Colorado project by turning an ever more powerful
microscope on the family, assuming that if we couldnt see the influence of
parents through standard psychological measures it was because we werent
looking hard enough. Not looking hard enough wasnt the problem. The
problem was that psychologists werent looking in the right place. They were
looking inside the home when they should have been looking outside the home.
The answer wasnt parents; it was peers.
Harris argues that we have been in the grip of what she calls the `nurture
assumption,` a parent-centered bias that has blinded us to what really
matters in human development. Consider, she says, the seemingly
common-sense statements `Children who are hugged are more likely to be nice`
and `Children who are beaten are more likely to be unpleasant.` Sure enough,
if you study nice, well-adjusted children, it turns out that they generally have
well-adjusted and nice parents. But what does this really mean? Since genes
account for about half of personality variations among people, its quite
possible that nice children are nice simply because they received nice genes
from their parents--and nice parents are going to be nice to their children.
Hugging may have made the children happy, and it may have taught them a
good way of expressing their affection, but it may not have been what made
them nice. Or take the example of smoking. The children of smokers are more
than twice as likely to smoke as the children of nonsmokers, so its natural to
conclude that parents who smoke around their children set an example that
their kids follow. In fact, a lot of parents who smoke feel guilty about it for that
very reason. But if parents really cause smoking there ought to be elevated
rates of smoking among the adopted children of smokers, and there arent. It
turns out that nicotine addiction is heavily influenced by genes, and the
reason that so many children of smokers smoke is that they have inherited a
genetic susceptibility to tobacco from their parents. David C. Rowe, a professor
of family studies at the University of Arizona (whose academic work on the
limits of family influence Harris says was critical to her own thinking), has
analyzed research into this genetic contribution, and he concludes that it
accounts entirely for the elevated levels of cigarette use among the children of
smokers. With smoking, as with niceness, what parents do seems to be nearly
Harris makes another, subtler point about parents. What if, she asks, the
cause-and-effect assumption with niceness and hugging can also go the other
way? What if, all other things being equal, nice children tend to be hugged
because they are nice, and unpleasant children tend to be beaten because they
are unpleasant? Children, after all, are born with individual temperaments.
Some children are easy to rear from the start and others are difficult, and
those innate characteristics, she says, can strongly influence how parents
treat them. Harris tells a story about a mother with two young children--a
five-year-old girl, named Audrey, and a seven-year-old boy, named Mark--who
walked by Harriss house one day when she was out in the front yard with her
dog, Page. Page ran toward the children, barking menacingly. Audrey went up
to the animal and asked her mother, `Can I pet him?` Her mother quickly told
her not to. Mark, meanwhile, was cowering on the other side of the street, and
he stayed there even after Harris rushed up and grabbed Page by the collar.
`Come on, Mark, the dog wont hurt you,` the mother said, and she waited for
her son to come back across the street. What is the parenting `style` here that
is supposedly so important in shaping personality? This mother is playing two
very different roles--coaxing the frightened Mark and reining in the brash
Audrey--and in each case her behavior is shaped by the actions and the
temperament of her child, and not the other way around.
This phenomenon--what Harris calls child-to-parent effects--has been explored
in detail by psychological researchers. David Reiss, of George Washington
University, and Robert Plomin, the behavioral geneticist who headed the
Colorado study, and a number of colleagues have just completed a ten-year,
nine-million-dollar study of seven hundred and twenty American families.
Thirty-two teams of testers were recruited, and they visited each family three
times in the course of three years, giving parents and siblings personality
tests, videotaping interactions between parents and children, questioning
teachers, asking siblings about siblings, asking parents about children, asking
children about parents--all to find out whether the differences in how parents
relate to each of their children make any predictable difference in the way
those children end up. `We thought that this was going to be a straight shot,`
Reiss told me. `The sibling who got the better micro environment would do
better, be less depressed, be less antisocial. It seemed like a no-brainer.` It
wasnt. Plomin told me, `If we just ask the simple question Does differential
parental treatment relate to differences in adolescent adjustment? the answer
is yes--hugely. If you take negative parents--conflict, hostility--its the strongest
predictor of negative adjustment of the siblings.` But the study was designed to
look at genetic influences as well--to examine whether children had
personality traits that were causing parental behavior--and when those
genetic factors were taken into consideration the link between negative
parenting and problems in adolescence almost entirely disappeared. `The
parents negativity isnt causing the negative adjustment of the kids,` Plomin
said. `Its reflecting it. This was a tremendous surprise to us.` What looks like
nurture is sometimes just nature, and what looks like a cause is sometimes just
an effect.
Harris takes this argument one step further. Consider, she says, the story of
The folks who gave us this tale ask us to accept the following premises: that
Cinderella was able to go to the ball and not be recognized by her stepsisters,
that despite years of degradation she was able to charm and hold the attention
of a sophisticated guy like the prince, that the prince didnt recognize her when
he saw her again in her own home dressed in her workaday clothing, and that
he never doubted that Cinderella would be able to fulfill the duties of a
princess and, ultimately, of a queen.
If you think of the influence of parents and the home environment as
monolithic, this tale does seem impossibly far-fetched. So why does the
Cinderella story work? Because, Harris says, all of us understand that it is
possible to be one person to our parents and another person to our friends.
`Cinderella learned whenshe was still quite small that it was best to act meek
when her stepmother was around, and to look unattractive in order to avoid
arousing her jealousy,` Harris writes. But outside the house Cinderella learned
that she could win friends by being pretty and charming. Harris says that this
lesson--that away from our parents we can reconstruct ourselves--is one that
all children learn very quickly, and it is an important limitation on the power
of parents: even when they do succeed in influencing their children, those
influences very often dont travel outside the home.
The Cinderella effect shows up all the time in psychological research. For
example, Harris notes that in the August, 1997, issue of the Archives of
Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine there is a study showing that the more
mothers spanked their kids, the more troublesome the kids became. `When
parents use corporal punishment to reduce antisocial behavior,` the
researchers report, `the long-term effect tends to be the opposite.` These
findings made headlines across the country. In the same issue of that journal,
however, another study of children and corporal punishment reached the
opposite conclusion: `For most children claims that spanking teaches
aggression seem unfounded.` The disparity is baffling until you remember the
Cinderella effect. The first study asked mothers to evaluate their childrens
behavior at home. Not surprisingly, it suggested that repeated spanking
contributes to the kind of negative relationship that causes further
misbehavior. The second study, however, asked kids how often they got into
fights at school, and the world of school is a very different place from the world
of home. Just the fact that a child wasnt getting along with his mother didnt
necessarily mean that he wouldnt get along with his peers.
In another instance, Harris cites a Swedish study of picky eating among
primary-school children. Some kids were picky eaters at school, some were
picky at home, but only a small number were picky at home and school. A child
who pushes away broccoli at the kitchen table might gobble it down in the
school cafeteria. In the same way, a child might be shy and retiring at home
but a chatterbox in the classroom. Harris applies the same logic to birth-order
effects--the popular idea that a good part of our personality is determined by
where we stand in relation to our siblings. `At home there are birth order
effects, no question about it, and I believe that is why its so hard to shake
peoples faith in them,` Harris writes. `If you see people with their parents or
their siblings, you do see the differences you expect to see. The oldest does seem
more serious, responsible, and bossy. The youngest does behave in a more
carefree fashion.` But thats only at home. Studies that look at the way people
act outside the home, and away from the parents and siblings, dont see any
consistent effects at all. The younger brother cowed by his older siblings all his
years of growing up is perfectly capable of being a dominant, take-charge figure
when hes among his friends. `Socialization research has demonstrated one
thing clearly and irrefutably: a parents behavior toward a child affects how
the child behaves in the presence of the parent or in contexts that are
associated with the parent,` Harris concludes. `I have no problem with that--I
agree with it. The parents behavior also affects the way the child feels about
the parent. When a parent favors one child over another, not only does it cause
hard feelings between the children--it also causes the unfavored child to
harbor hard feelings against the parent. These feelings can last a lifetime.`
But they dont necessarily cross over into the life the child leads outside the
home--the place where adults spend the majority of their lives.
Not long ago, Anne-Marie Ambert, a sociologist at York University, in Ontario,
asked her students to write short autobiographies describing, among other
things, the events in their lives which made them most unhappy. Nine per cent
identified something that their parents had done, while more than a third
pointed to the way they had been treated by peers. Ambert concluded:
There is far more negative treatment by peers than by parents.... In these
autobiographies, one reads accounts of students who had been happy and well
adjusted, but quite rapidly began deteriorating psychologically, sometimes to
the point of becoming physically ill and incompetent in school, after
experiences such as being rejected by peers, excluded, talked about, racially
discriminated against, laughed at, bullied, sexually harassed, taunted, chased
or beaten.
This is Harriss argument in a nutshell: that whatever our parents do to us is
overshadowed, in the long run, by what our peers do to us. In `The Nurture
Assumption,`Harris pulls together an extraordinary range of studies and
observations to support this idea. Here, for example, is Harris on delinquency.
First, she cites a study of juvenile delinquency--vandalism, theft, assault,
weapons possession, and so on--among five hundred elementary-school and
middle-school boys in Pittsburgh. The study found that African-American
boys, many of them from poor, single-parent, `high-risk` families, committed
far more delinquent acts than the white kids. That much isnt surprising. But
when the researchers divided up the black boys by neighborhood the effect of
coming from a putatively high-risk family disappeared. Black kids who didnt
live in the poorest, underclass neighborhoods--even if they were from poor,
single-parent families--were no more delinquent than their white, mostly
middle-class peers. At the same time, Harris cites another large study--one
that compared the behavior of poor inner-city kids from intact families to the
behavior of those living only with their mothers. Youd assume that a child is
always better off in a two-parent home, but the research doesnt bear that out.
`Adolescent males in this sample who lived in single-mother households did
not differ from youth living in other family constellations in their alcohol and
substance use, delinquency, school dropout, or psychological distress,` the
study concluded. A child is better off, in other words, living in a troubled
family in a good neighborhood than living in a good family in a troubled
neighborhood. Peers trump parents.
Other studies have shown that children living without their biological fathers
are more likely to drop out of school and, if female, to get pregnant in their
teens. But is this because of the absence of a parent, Harris asks, or is it because
of some factor that is merely associated with the absence of a parent? Having a
stepfather around, for example, doesnt make a kid any less likely to be
unemployed, to drop out, or to be a teen-age mother. Nor does having lots of
contact with ones biological father after he has left. Nor does having another
biological relative--a grandparent, for instance--in the home. Nor does it seem
to matter when the father leaves: kids whose parents split up when they were
in their early teens are no better off and no worse off than kids whose fathers
left when they were infants. And, curiously, children whose fathers die arent
worse off at all. In short, there isnt a lot of evidence that the loss of adult
guidance and role models caused by fatherlessness has specific behavioral
consequences. So what is it? One obvious factor is income: single mothers have
less money than married mothers, and income has a big effect on the welfare of
children. If your parents split up and you move from Riverdale to the South
Bronx, youre obviously going to be a lot worse off--although its not the loss of
your father that makes the difference. This brings us to another factor:
relocation. Single-parent families move more often than intact families, and,
according to one major study, those extra changes of residence could account
for more than half the increased risk of dropping out, of teen-age pregnancy,
and of unemployment among the children of divorce. The problem with
divorce, in short, is not so much that it disrupts kids relationships with their
parents as that it disrupts kids relationships with other kids. `Moving is rough
on kids,` Harris writes. `Kids who have been moved around a lot--whether or
not they have a father--are more likely to be rejected by their peers; they have
more behavioral problems and more academic problems than those who have
stayed put.`
All these findings become less perplexing when you accept one of Harriss
central observations; namely, that kids arent interested in becoming copies of
their parents. Children want to be good at being children. How, for example, do
you persuade a preschooler to eat something new? Not by eating it yourself and
hoping that your child follows suit. A preschooler doesnt care what you think.
But give the food to a roomful of preschoolers who like it, and its quite probable
that your child will happily follow suit. From the very moment that children
first meet other children, they take their cues from them.
One of the researchers whom Harris draws on in her peer discussion is William
A. Corsaro, a professor of sociology at Indiana University and a pioneer in the
ethnography of early childhood. He was one of the first researchers to spend
months crouching by swing sets and next to monkey bars closely observing the
speech and play patterns of preschoolers. In one of his many playground
stakeouts, Corsaro was sitting next to a sandbox and watching two four-year-old
girls, Jenny and Betty, play house, and put sand in pots, cupcake pans, and
teapots. Suddenly, a third girl, Debbie, approached. Here is Corsaros full
description of the scene:
After watching for about five minutes [Debbie] circles the sandbox three times
and stops again and stands next to me. After a few more minutes of watching,
Debbie moves to the sandbox and reaches for a teapot. Jenny takes the pot away
from Debbie and mumbles, `No.` Debbie backs away and again stands near me,
observing the activity of Jenny and Betty. Then she walks over next to Betty,
who is filling the cupcake pan with sand.
Debbie watches Betty for just a few seconds, then says,`Were friends, right,
Betty, not looking up at Debbie, continues to place sand in the pan and says,
Debbie now moves alongside Betty, takes a pot and spoon, begins putting sand
in the pot, and says, `Im making coffee.`
`Im making cupcakes,` Betty replies.
Betty now turns to Jenny and says, `Were mothers, right, Jenny?`
`Right,` says Jenny.
The three `mothers` continue to play together for about twenty more minutes,
until the teachers announce cleanup time.
To adults, this exchange looks somewhat troubling. If you saw Debbie circling
the sandbox over and over, youd think she was shy and timid. And if you came
upon the three girls just as Jenny told Debbie no youd think Jenny was selfish
and needed to be taught to share. In both cases, the children seem profoundly
antisocial. In fact, Corsaro says, the opposite is true. A preschool playground is
rather like a cocktail party. There are lots of informal clusters of kids playing
together, and the kids are in constant movement, from cluster to cluster.
Unlike at a cocktail party, though, the play clusters are very fragile. `If the
phone rang right now,` Corsaro said to me when I met him, in his office in
Bloomington, `I could answer it, talk for five minutes, and then we could pick
up where we left off. Its easy for us. When you are a three- or four-year-old and
youve generated something spontaneous and its going well, its not so easy.`
The bell can ring. An adult can step in. An older child can disrupt things. As a
result, they spend a lot of effort trying to protect their play from disruption.
Betty and Jenny arent resistant to sharing when they initially say no to
Debbie. They are already sharing, and the point of keeping Debbie at bay is to
defend that shared play.
What has evolved in preschool culture, then, is what Corsaro calls access
strategies--an elaborate set of rules and rituals that govern when and how the
third parties circulating through the playground are allowed to join an
existing game. Debbies approach to the sandbox is what Corsaro calls nonverbal
entry--the first common opening move in the access dance. Shes waiting for an
invitation to join. Its the same at an adult cocktail party. You dont come up to
an existing conversation and say, `May I join in?` You join the group quietly, as
if to demonstrate respect for the existing conversation. When Debbie goes
around and around the sandbox, shes trying to understand the basis of Jenny
and Bettys play. Corsaro calls this encirclement. Notice that when Debbie
initially reaches for a teapot Jenny says no. Debbie hasnt proved that she
understands the game in question. So she retreats and observes further. Then
she makes what Corsaro calls a verbal reference to affiliation--`Were friends,
right?` Its as if she were offering her bona fides. She gets a positive response.
Now she enters again, this time making it absolutely clear that she
understands the game: `Im making coffee.` Shes in. This is how children learn
to get along. Kids teach each other how to be social. Indeed, to the extent that
adults might get involved in an access situation--by, for example, instructing
Jenny and Betty that they have to share with Debbie--they would frustrate the
learning process.
Corsaro is a quiet, bearded man of fifty, with the patient, stubborn air of
someone who has spent the better part of his life sitting and watching
screaming three-year-olds. Harris E-mailed him when she was writing her
Psycholo gical Review paper, and the two have struck up an on-line friendship.
Most people, Corsaro says, want to figure out what his work says about
individual development. Harris, though, recognized at once what Corsaro
considers the real lesson, which is the childrens immediate and powerful
attraction to their own peer group. Once, Corsaro spent close to a year in a
preschool where the children had been forbidden to bring their toys into the
classroom. Before long, he noticed that they had found a way around the rule:
the children were selecting the smallest of their toys--the boys chose Matchbox
toy cars, for example, and the girls little plastic animals--and hiding them in
their pockets. These were only preschoolers, but already they were organizing
against the adult world, defining themselves as a group in opposition to their
elders. `What I found interesting was not that the kids wanted to bring their
own toys but that when they smuggled them in they never played with them
alone. They played with them collectively,` Corsaro told me. `They wanted
others to know that they had them. They wanted to share the toys with others.
They are not only sharing the toy but sharing the fact that they are getting
around the rule. This is what is unique. I think there is a real, strong
emotional satisfaction in sharing things, in doing things together.` Even for a
child of three or four, the group is critical.
Judith Harris and her husband, Charles, have two children. The first, Nomi, is
their biological daughter, and the second, Elaine, is adopted. In that sense,
Harriss own family is a kind of micro-version of the adoption studies that raise
the question of parental influence, and she says that without the example of
her daughters she might not have reached the conclusion she did. Nomi, the
elder, was quiet and self-sufficient as a child, a National Merit Scholar who
went on to do graduate work at MIT. `She is very much like me and Charlie,`
Harris says. `She gave us no trouble while she was growing up. She didnt
require much guidance, because she didnt want to do anything that we didnt
want her to do. Even before she could walk, she would crawl off to another part
of the house, and Id find her taking things out of a drawer and looking at them
carefully--and putting them down carefully.`
Elaine was different. `When she was little, all you had to do was look down and
she was there, right on my heels,` Harris recalls. `She always wanted to be with
people. We started getting bad reports from the school right away--that she
wouldnt sit in her chair, and she was bothering other kids. When Nomi would
ask a question, it was because she was interested in the answer. When Elaine
would ask a question, it was because she was interested in having the
interaction. Nomi would ask a question once. Elaine would often ask a question
several times. As the girls got older, Nomi became a brain and Elaine became a
dropout. Nomi was a member of a very small clique of intellectual kids, and
Elaine was a member of the delinquent subgroup. They went in opposite
Harris has an optimistic air about her, as if all her troubles had only served to
strengthen her appreciation of life. But its clear that bringing up Elaine
represented a real crisis in her life. When Elaine was six and Nomi was ten,
Harris became ill for the first time. She was in such pain that she couldnt sit
up for more than half an hour. She tried taking a graduate course in
psychology, hoping to finish a doctorate she had started, in the early sixties, at
Harvard, and she had a fellow-student carry a cot to class so she could lie down
during lectures. But even that was too hard, so she became a textbook writer,
lying in her bed, with a spiral-bound notebook on her knee, and Nomi acting as
her typist. She had pneumonia, a heart murmur, pulmonary hypertension,
shingles, a year of chronic hives, and a minor stroke. `Sometimes,` she says, `I
felt like Job,` and in the midst of all her troubles her younger daughter seemed
out of control.
`We had very bad years with her in her teens,` she recalls. `We didnt know how
to handle her.` Harris says that she began motherhood as a classic
environmentalist, meaning she believed that children would reflect the
environment in which they were reared. Had she stopped with Nomi, she says,
she might have attributed Nomis studiousness and self-sufficiency and success
to her own enlightened parenting. It was Elaine who made the puzzle posed by
the adoption studies seem real. `I assumed that an adopted child would
represent her environment, and that if I could give Elaine the same kind of
environment I gave to my first child she would turn out--of course, not the
same...` She thought for moment. `But I certainly didnt expect that she would
be so vastly different. I couldnt see that I was having any effect on her at all.`
Harris seems a little reluctant to talk about those years, particularly since
Elaine turned out, as she puts it, `amazingly well` and is now happy and
married, with a toddler and a career as a licensed practical nurse. But its not
hard to imagine the kind of guilt and frustration she must have felt--maternal
helplessness magnified by her physical debility--as she and Charles did
everything that good parents are supposed to do yet still came up short. Her
epiphany was, in a way, her release, because she came to believe that the
reason she and Charles couldnt see that they were having any effect on Elaine
was that parents really cant have a big effect on their children.
There are a hundred ways of explaining Nomi and Elaine, and there is, of
course, something very convenient about the explanation that Harris arrived
at: its the kind of thing that the mother of a difficult child wants to believe.
Harris has constructed a theory that lets herself off the hook for her daughters
troubled childhood. It should be said, though, that the idea that parents can
control the destiny of their children by doing all the right things--by providing
children with every lesson and every experience, by buying them the right toys
and saying the right words and never spanking or publicly scolding them--is
just as self-serving. At least, Harriss theory calls for neighborhoods, peers, and
children themselves to share the blame--and the credit--for how children turn
out. The nurture assumption, by contrast, places the blame and the credit
squarely on the parent, and has made it possible to demonize all those who fail
to measure up to the strictest standards of supposedly optimal parenting. `I
want to tell parents that its all right,` Harris told me. `A lot of people who
should be contributing children to our society, who could be contributing very
useful and fine children, are reluctant to do it, or are waiting very long to have
children, because they feel that it requires such a huge commitment. If they
knew that it was O.K. to have a child and let it be reared by a nanny or put it in
a day-care center, or even to send it to a boarding school, maybe theyd believe
that it would be O.K. to have a kid. You can have a kid without having to devote
your entire life--your entire emotional expenditure--to this child for the next
twenty years.`
Harris does not see children as delicate vessels and does not believe they are
easily damaged by the missteps of their mothers and fathers. We have been
told, Harris writes, to tell children not that theyve been bad but that what
they did was bad, or, even more appropriately, that what they did made us feel
bad. In her view, we have come to insist on these niceties only because we have
forgotten what the world of children is really like. `Kids are not that fragile,`
she writes. `They are tougher than you think. They have to be, because the
world out there does not handle them with kid gloves. At home, they might
hear What you did made me feel bad, but out on the playground its You
Is Harris right? She is the first to admit that what she has provided is only, at
this stage, a theory. From her tiny study, off the main hallway of her home in
New Jersey, she is scarcely in a position to do the kind of multimillion-dollar,
multi-year study that is needed to test her hypothesis. `My guess is that some
of the more threatened elders in the field of psychology are going to go out of
their way to try and savage this,` Robert Sapolsky, a neurobiologist at
Stanford, says. `But my gut feeling is that this is really important. Harris
makes a lot of sense. Sometimes she is a little doctrinaire`--he paused--`but,
boy.` Already, Harris has helped wrench psychology away from its
single-minded obsession with chronicling and interpreting the tiniest
perturbations of family life. The nurture assumption, she says, has turned
childhood into parenthood: it has turned the development of children into a
story almost entirely about their parents. `Have you ever thought of yourself
as a mirror?` Dorothy Corkille Briggs asks in her pop-psychology handbook
`Your Childs Self-Esteem.` `You are one--a psychological mirror your child uses
to build his identity. And his whole life is affected by the conclusions he
draws.` And here are Barbara Chernofsky and Diane Gage, in `Change Your
Childs Behavior by Changing Yours,` on how children relate to their parents:
`Like living video cameras, children record what they observe.` This is the
modern-day cult of parenting. It takes as self-evident the idea that the child is
oriented, overwhelmingly, toward the parents. But why should that be true?
Dont parents, in fact, spend much of their time instructing their children not
to act like adults--that they cannot be independent, that they cannot make
decisions entirely by themselves, that different rules apply to them because
they are children?
`If developmental psychology were an enterprise conducted by children, there
is no question that peer relationships would be at the top of the list,` Peter
Gray, a psychologist at Boston College, told me. `But because it is conducted by
adults we tend, egocentrically, to believe that it is the relationship between us
and our children that is important. But just look at them. Whom do they want
to please? Are they wearing the kind of clothing that other kids are wearing or
the kind that their parents are wearing? If the other kids are speaking another
way, whose language are they going to learn? And, from an evolutionary
perspective, whom should they be paying attention to? Their parents--the
members of the previous generation--or their peers, who will be their future
mates and future collaborators? It would more adaptive for them to be better
attuned to the nuances of their peers behavior. That just makes a lot of sense.`
Harriss health is more stable now, and when she was putting the finishing
touches on her book this summer she was sometimes able to work at the
computer twelve, or even fourteen, hours a day. But anything more strenuous
is out of the question. The woman who says that what really matters is what
happens outside the home rarely leaves the home--not for vacations, or even to
see a movie. Indeed, none of the heavyweight psychologists who have
befriended her since her Psychological Review article ran have ever met her.
`Writing E-mail is my recreation,` she wrote me in an E-mail.
When Harris goes to San Francisco this week, for the A.P.A. convention, it will
be a kind of coming-out party. In preparation, during the past few weeks she
has had to go shopping. `I have to buy clothes,` she said. `Ive hardly been out of
the house in years.` On August 15th, she will take the stage and receive a prize
named in honor of the eminent scholar George A. Miller. Almost four decades
ago, Harris was kicked out of graduate school after only two years, and the dean
who delivered the news was the same George A. Miller. The two have since
corresponded, and Miller has termed the irony `delicious.` In her acceptance
remarks, Harris told me, she intends to read from the letter that Miller wrote
her long ago: `I hesitate to say that you lack originality and independence,
because in many areas of life you obviously possess both of those traits in
abundance. But for some reason you have not been able to bring them to bear
on the kind of problems in psychology to which this department is
dedicated....We are in considerable doubt that you will develop into our
professional stereotype of what an experimental psychologist should be.`
“My Papa’s Waltz”“Do Not Go Gentle”“This Be The Verse”
short stories:
“Everyday Use”“Sonny’s Blues”“You Can’t Kill the Rooster”
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In Week Five, you will continue working with the Business Scenario Decisions in
Paradise and build upon your assignment from Weeks Three and Four where
you began development for a response to the scenario. For the Decisions in
Paradise Part III complete the following items: a. Read the Business Scenario Decisions in Paradise. b. You are Nik, and your employer is the organization represented by Alex, Nik,
and Chris. c. Use your Week Three and Four assignments as the foundation for the current
assignment. d. Using the information from the case, materials from the course,
independent research, the mission of your current organization, and your
Week Three and Four assignments, to prepare a 1,050-1,750-word paper, which
you describe your rationale and plan for implementation for the proposed
solution(s) for your organization to establish a greater presence on Kava by: 1) Determine factors affecting decision implementation in an organization and
your proposed solution(s) 2) Evaluate resources and actions required for decision implementation of your
proposed solution(s) 3) Evaluate the ethical implications from stakeholders perspectives of your
proposed solution(s) Business ScenarioDecisions in Paradise: How To Be, or Not To BeIntroduction:My name is Nik. I spell my name a little differently. But, with so many folks
named Nicholas, Nicolette, Nicole, Nikoleta, Nikola, and more, I figure I’d let
people guess. Like everyone else, I periodically imagine what paradise on Earth would be for
me. In my imagination, my trip to paradise includes having a wonderful,
loving relationship, finishing my college degree, getting a meaningful job,
seeing some of the rest of the world, and getting my dog, Leonard, housebroken. Although I’d been working on all this stuff for what seems a lifetime, I couldn’t
believe that they all came together for me within a three week period;
although, I’m still working on Leonard. Within two weeks of finishing my degree, I landed a job with great potential in
a solid organization. All the investment of time, energy, and money in school
finally paid off, not to mention I learned a lot more than I thought I would. The
next week I reconnected with a former “friend”, that could prove to be the love
of my life. Did I point out I’m still working with Leonard? Adding to paradise found, my first assignment with my new company required
me to travel to another part of the world—an island country of Kava, in the
South Pacific to be exact. Now who thinks of the South Pacific and doesn’t image
a physical paradise – white beach, gentle surf, swaying palm trees, tropical
breeze – I sure did, and so did the prospective love of my life. We agreed the
first trip would be strictly business. So, I would be traveling alone. Poor
Leonard. If this assignment and our relationship worked out well, however, we
could spend other occasions together in paradise. My first week of work was entirely engulfed in a brief introduction to the
company, HR procedures, organizational processes, overview of Kava, and
flight arrangements. Although I received a great deal of help in putting
together the trip to Kava, no one knew exactly what I would be doing there. “You’ll be working with Alex, our director of strategic planning,” was the short,
quick, and consistent response I got. “Very experienced, very demanding, very
influential executive. What an opportunity for you!” So, the following week I was off to Kava, to meet with Alex, my supervisor and
mentor, for my assignment in paradise. I hope the love of my life gets Leonard housebroken while I am gone. The setting:My first reminder that life’s events are not as we perceive them to be is when I
landed in Kava. What I found was that this part of paradise was a mess, at least
where I landed. It was a mess all the way to our company’s office. It was a mess
around the office. I opened the door of the trailer, our make-shift office. The office was a mess,
too! Before I could focus myself to say anything, even to greet the receptionist
sitting behind the desk, the hectic yet very welcoming voice rang out,
“Greetings, I’m Alex.” I was a bit surprised. Correction: I was very surprised. People never look like
you picture them—nothing is like your mind ever pictures it—but I was way off
with Alex. I should have known better, but I still answered, “Really? You’re not
the receptionist? You’re not at all how I pictured you.” “Really?” Alex responded, “How did you picture me……..” gesturing me to
introduce myself. “I’m sorry. I’m Nik,” I responded.“You are Nik?” was Alex’s retort. “Wow! You’re not even close to how I pictured
you, either.”“So much for perception is reality,” we said in unison.“Well, that was a wave of commonality in this sea of diverse thought, eh?” Alex
quipped. I quickly learned Alex loved metaphors.“Yeah, let’s see if we can have many more of these we experience,” I answered,
hoping my first impression was not my last.Again with a hectic this time reassuring voice Alex said, “Oh we will. “So, you’re one of the rookies they sent me from training camp. Get ready for
some fun games. By the way, I am also the receptionist.”“Let me tell you a little about Kava,” Alex continued, and with a note of humor
and threat added, “And, make sure you keep your eye on the ball this time.”Alex debriefs Nik about Kava.FACTS ABOUT KAVA:The location:A significant island country in the South Pacific. The people:Over 50% under 15 years of ageEthnic mix of indigenous South Pacific tribes, Asian (Chinese primarily),
African, French, Spanish, and since World War II, a sizeable number of
Americans. Religions – Indigenous 50%, remainder closely divided between Christian,
Buddhist, and Islamic. Languages – Numerous indigenous, as well as English, Spanish, and French. The economy:Petroleum, coffee, cocoa, spices, bananas, sugar, tourism, fishing, and natural
gas, as well as inexpensive, quality labor.Disasters threats: Tidal waves/tsunami Typhoons/HurricanesTornadoes FloodsFiresVolcanic eruptionsEarthquakesHIV/AIDSPetroleum spillHigh risk for avian fluTerrorism, from within and outside the countryHelping organizations:Governmental service – local, state, and national levels—including the
militaryCommunity based organizationsFaith-based groupsBusinessesTHE SITUATION:After Alex’s introduction to Kava, reviewing the potential risk associated with
our location, and thinking I’m showing Alex my great observation skills, I
declare, “That’s why the mess all around here. Some disaster hit this place.
Right?”Alex’s eyes spoke, “No kidding, slugger.” But kinder and more informative
words came from Alex’s mouth that said, “No, not some disaster. It was some
disasters—fastballs being thrown from all sides, so to speak.”I asked my first stupid question, “What kind of disasters have they had here?”With some chiding, but great patience, Alex replied, “Don’t they teach about
things that happen in the rest of the world at your college, or did you get hit by
a pitch?”“They do,” I answered, “but like everybody else, I guess, it if doesn’t affect me
directly, I don’t pay much attention.”“Every day, in many ways, you’re affected directly by things that happen in
many parts of the rest of the world,” Alex responded, this time with less
patience. “I bet what happens in Kava impacts your life at least three times a
day, every day. You may not get all the fly balls, but you’re still in every part
of the game”“What happened here was…..“How did the folks deal with all that?” I interrupted with amazement.“Too much, too many, and over too short a period,” Alex answered with sigh.
“Add to that the diverse composition, beliefs, attitudes, and ideologies, and
you’ve got a melting pot boiling over.”“Or, everybody thinks they can pitch, eh?” as I took a swing at metaphoric
statements.“Good one,” Alex stated. “Yep. Now, let’s get to work on our game plan.”THE TASK:Alex began to define our mission and my assignment: “Our company is considering establishing a greater presence here in Kava,”
Alex started. “That greater presence could take various forms, based on what’s
good for our company and what’s good for the people of Kava. You and I get the
chance to analyze, synthesize, and prescribe regarding that decision.”“Because so many disasters happen here?” I questioned. “I think I can write up
this recommendation in two words, ‘Forget It’”.Again with great patience, Alex explained, slowly and deliberately, “I guess you
can just take your ball and go home. But our organization chose to play in this
game and you chose to join our organization. If you really want to play, you will
have to take your turn at bat. There are no designated hitters in this game.”I rephrased my thoughts, “OK, we want a greater presence on Kava, because so
many disasters happen here.” Alex answered, “Yes, but even more. Certainly, one reason is that whatever
happens here affects us there. I’ll make sure you understand that as we create
this study. As you’ve seen recently, disasters happen at home, too. We can
avoid, deny, or ignore them. We have to turn them into opportunities. Another
huge reason is the founder of our company, Chris Morales, has a deep-seeded
commitment to doing what is right. Not because of the economics, or politics, or
recognition, but because it’s the right thing to do. Our organization is far from
perfect, but we keep trying to upgrade who we are, what we do, and how we do
it. Chris believes we can’t keep taking more from Kava, if we don’t give more
back. Chris wants to live up to that Morales name. And, the third, maybe most
consequential reason is the government of Kava, and I’m sure indirectly a
bunch of other organizations, are asking us to bring our business “culture” to
Kava.“Why is their government asking our company, a for-profit business, to help
them with their, uh, social needs?” I asked. “There are also three big, basic reasons, for that,” Alex answered, “and loads of
other minor ones. “First of all, through our growth, our company has demonstrated that we can
develop and manage a very effective, as well as highly efficient, organizational
structure and processes. That includes all aspects of the company; marketing,
finance, purchasing, technology, human resources, physical resource,
transportation, strategic planning, leadership, etc.“Secondly, the goods and services that come from Kava, have a significant
impact on our company, you and me, and most folks back home, as well as
people all over the world. “Last, and certainly not least, as Chris has preached and demonstrated, ‘In the
long run, economics drives everything.’”Alex concluded with, “So, are you ready for your turn at bat?”“I guess,” I answered will all the confidence of a first-time skydiver. “But, I
wouldn’t mind if you’re the leadoff hitter, at least for right now.”“OK, then. Keep your eye on the ball,” Alex instructed, “because here’s what we,
by that I mean you, need to do first. “All those fresh new critical-thinking skills you developed in your education
should be applied, because I want you to write a not-too-long Part I to what will
be our company’s plan about how we have a greater presence on Kava. I think
Part I of the plan should discuss at least three areas; organizational processes,
human resources, and ethics. “So, how to be, or how not to be here,” I joked, “That is the question.”“That’s right, Hamlet.” Alex joked in return, “Although I think was Milton not
Shakespeare who wrote Paradise Lost. Let’s see if we can find it.”
Critical Thinking

Decisions in Paradise: How to Be or Not To Be[Name][University][Professor][Date]

Decisions in Paradise: How to Be or Not To Be Paradise! Whoa! This word brings a picture of a good place. A place of
happiness, cleanliness, wealth and other good stuffs that we do not usually find
here on earth is what I see when I hear this simple word. Just like how paradise
is defined biblically, I imagine it as a never ending avenue for my dreams, yes!
“A place with flowing milk and honey” as God said in the Bible of His chosen
land; the place His ever loved people are destined to have. Sweet smelling
surrounding with a lot of flowers and green trees are usually seen in this
image. How many days more? Days from now, I will be participating in an organization which
aimed to promote their mission and vision to a place I never heard about. I will
be giving m time to some of the activities that will also require a piece of me,
my being. Imagine having a time to spend with people I really do not know and
care about before. This might be the first time that I will be interacting with
several people. This is a very challenging role for me as I may be experiencing a
number of trials with the place and the people of KAVA.The organization’s goal was noble. Noble as it may seem to me that they wanted
to change the overall life of the people in KAVA. When Alex presented me of the
facts about how KAVA looked liked, I was taken aback to decide whether I will
be joining the fun of helping them or not. Taking into consideration that the
city already experienced a number of tragedies like typhoons, tsunamis, fire,
terrorism and other dreadful occurrences, I felt that people living in this city
has already suffered a lot. My family and I also experience tragedies but not with the way Alex described
them in KAVA. I feel that if ever I will be in that kind of place, I would not have
survived for I have had a good life since I was born. My parents provided me of
good education that is why I am now in front of my PC, analyzing and devising
was to help the less fortunate people.Problems within It is the goal of the organization to determine at which area of the
population or the city needs more attention so as to device programs that will
at least change its status for the better. The information given to me by Alex
was I think enough for me to think of the best ways I can help and contribute to
KAVA. Indeed, the famous “scientific method” is a good tool in analyzing and
solving the problems of this city. Below is an enumeration of the possible flaws
of KAVA’s economy together with the target solutions after the observation
and Immersion.Looking at the background of the place, I can conclude that the place lack
developments because most of their residents are still young and not yet fit to
work. Almost or more than 50% of their population are consist of youth below
15 years old, so how are we supposed to expect a work force in Kava. I also saw
the lack of groups that actually help its people to develop and learn the basic
knowledge about life that is why they keep on multiplying but they do not
manage to give the best care with their young since they hardly have
information about hygiene and diseases accompanying poor hygienic habits.
Since almost 50% of the population is indigenous, it is hard for the government
to implement rules and regulations that will be well understood by many. The
lack programs that will actually facilitate their need for information is also
one of the major reasons why they do not have a good economy. Possible Freedom I could have searched for more detailed information about KAVA but
the plot of information given to me by Alex is enough to have an idea of saving
KAVA from a complete devastation: environment, economy and people. Education is one of the best tools I imagine as the key for their
long-awaited freedom, from this poverty. Education gives people the knowledge
and wisdom they should bring along them as they walk through life. It’s like
providing the basic foods to an infant to make his/her foundation strong
enough to withstand his/her development in the future. Education is needed b
the people of Kava to nurture them more and give them the chance to analyze
what situation is currently presented to them. Another thing is that, more
volunteers must be involved in this wisdom – drive in order to support these
people not only intellectually but also emotionally especially those who have
witnessed a number of tragedies that killed the other citizens of Kava. It is
important that the government of Kava and the volunteer group will
coordinate to have the basis of the activities that will be held on that place so
as not to make it unfit for them. Learning will be easy if activities are well –
adjusted to the levels of their understanding.My reflection I might have given a number of negative thoughts about Kava, but
joining and participating with our team is one of my life-defining moves to
change at least a little part of the world. It is still better to have some time
sharing others the boundless grace of God. In my selfishness, I found a new Nik,
eager and bold about changing the status of Kava in a different way; a
challenging and adventurous way to make other people happy despite the
nothingness of the place.ReferenceWhat is paradise? Retrieved 8 November 2008 from

74228061 [?]Inclusion paper [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $5.5 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
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From your readings, class lectures/discussions/assignments, research (at least
2 articles),and field experiences, write a paper addressing one of the following:
curriculum access, differentiated instruction, teacher collaboration,
family/school collaboration, multicultural special education or legal
provisions.In your paper, include the following:Summarize: Describe the classroom setting you observed. Analyze: Study your readings and references and think deeply about the major
points that you will make in your essay.Synthesize: Compare and contrast major points and pull out major themes.Evaluate: How will your readings, class lectures, and discussions be useful to
you, as a teacher of students with learning. Apply: Add some of your own ideas that may expand on what you found to be
useful to you as a teacher.Reflect: What questions are raised for you by this assignment? What more do
you need to know?* have to as a resource both textbook:1. Including Students with Special needs by Marilyn Friend. fourth edition.2.Method for Teaching Culturally and linguistically Diverse Exceptional
Learners. by John Hoover. chapters 1 and 10 71226775 [?]Choose one of the topics in description [?]Order Type: Book Report [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.9 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
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Book Name : Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People ISBN :
You must use examples from Bedes writings to support your response to the
topic. Provide a page number in parentheses after a quotation or paraphrase, you dont need to use
footnotes or endnotes.Do not use material from any other books or from websites.Paper for a history class are not book reports or personal opinion essays. For
this paper, you are using a primary source (BEDE) to write about the past( Anglo-Saxon England). Do not
make a mistake of just summarizing what happen in Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People,
and do not make the mistake of only write about what you did or did not like about Bede or his
Choose one of these topics: ( Topic #1 is specific questions, so make sure that you
answer the question in your paper)
1) Many historians have argued that the Christian Church became a
replacement for Roman authority afterthe end of Roman Empire in the West. How do Bedes writings reveal the ways in
which the church tried to impose order and control in Anglo-Saxson England, and how effective was the
Church as a new kong of `Roman` empire?
2) Miracles, disasters, and political crises had special importance for Bede and
other medievalChristians. Using examples from Bedes writings, explain why those events were
important to early Christians like him, and show how they were uses by Bede to defend the
authority of the Christian Church in England. 71223256 [?]Applications of Social Emotional Educational Learning Environment Designing
a Concept-based Learning Environment [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $3.4 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
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This paper is about social-emotional developmental concepts. (learning, self
awareness, and socialization). Imagine you are an eduational consultant firm
that helps schools develop student-based social-emotional elementary and
secondary schools. The school seeking your services can be a public or a private
school, day or residential school, your choice. Also, your choice is whether the
school premominantly serves at-risk kids(behavioral problems) or the general
population of children. The curriculum is a given as it follows the
requirements for teh state in which you reside(mass). Decisions, however, still
need to be made about issues related responsibility within and outside of the
class, and the schools goal of integrating learning with its relevance to life
outside of the acadmic institution. Your objective is to design a learning
environment taht will meet the psychological needs of the children or the
adolescents who attend this school and explain how the needs are being met.
You have in your power the chance to create an ideal school program that will
effectively and successfully motivate all the students who walk through its
doors to come to school enthusiastically. No student in this school will be left
behind. contingencies should be made for kids whose behaviors may get out of
control. The way you will do this is to base all aspects of your program on the
psychological & educational theories. If it helps, imagine that you are a firm of
psychologists. The main focus will be on the strategies utilized to promote a
successful and challenging learning environment for students of all abilities.
Discuss any technical issues that need to be addressed in order to implement
program. In the planning, money is not an issue. Decisionsshould be made
about the philosophy and educational goals of the school, teachers
responsibilities, student responbilities, parents responsibilities.when the day
should begin and end.The people on each team will come to a consensus on the
issue as being the most effective in social-emotional and personality
development. please submit a critical analysis of the school program proposal
DESIGNING YOUR PROGRAM.Some questions to be addressed:1. when will the school day begin and end? the school year?2. Will you hire teachers with any special qualities?3. What issues relating to students eduactional and psychosocial needs should
the school adddress? What kind of school climate will be fostered school-wide
and within individual classrooms?4. What approaches tp teaching might be used by teachers (e.g direct
instruction, cognitive, constructivist, and /or social constructivist
approaches). With what type of student would each of these teaching approach
work the best?5. What strategies/styles of classroom management might ethe teachers use?6. How will teh school handle students with learning disablities? Dropouts?7. How will twh school-to-work/career program be integrated into theschool
program?8. Would you use collaborative learning and if so, how?9. Will there be a difference in the way you educate college and non-college
bound students? low achievers? high achievers10. How will your learning environment address students who have a
performance versus mastery-orientation to learning? Students who have high
self-efficacy/low self-efficacy?11. How will the learning environment handle:-Students who are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated?-students who have an internal or external locus of control -students who follow a path of failure syndrome 74229158 [?]discuss the relationship of theory in different fields of nursing [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $18.74 [?] Number of pages: 1 (Single Spaced) [?]
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this essay aims to discuss the application of different theories in nursing in the
following: nursing practice, nursing research and nursing administration and
management.based from above style i dont know what to choose just make this paper short,
simple and discuss the topic ive given for the 3 fields i mentioned above.thanks 75224767 [?]: the impact of the current financial crisis on Banks in the USA [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $3.9 [?] Number of pages: 10 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 29 17:58 [?] Total: $39 [?] Number of sources: 4 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 1 days 3 hours 28 minutes Status: Order is available
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The main topic: the impact of the current financial crisis on Banks in the USA2500 words (any famous in the UAS)
Introduction• Statement of the research problem (the topic)• Significance and objectives of the research• Research questions/hypotheses• Methodology• Study design
The conceptual frameworkThorough analysis of data collected using quantitative and qualitative
analytical tools
Conclusion The main findings of the research (result) and relevant recommendations
Reference:Must include a variety of sources (books, journal articles and the internet 72224848 [?]essay [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $3.9 [?] Number of pages: 8 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 29 21:25 [?] Total: $31.2 [?] Number of sources: 1 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 1 days 6 hours 55 minutes Status: Order is available
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This is what professor wants for this paper.
Book: How the Mind Works by Steven Pinker
I want you to focus on Chapter One (Standard equipment) of How the Mind
Works. Discuss each section of that chapter in detail, stating exactly what
Pinker is discussing and what he is trying to show in each section. Do not
include anything outside Chapter One of this book in your essay. 78218465 [?]PDA business plan [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: MasterCompensation per page: $4.6 [?] Number of pages: 11 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 0:19 [?] Total: $50.6 [?] Number of sources: 20 [?] Style: Harvard [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 1 days 9 hours 34 minutes Status: Order is available
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ASSIGNMENT/COURSEWORK PROFORMAAssessment title:PDA Business Plan Main objectives of the assessment:To enable students to exhibit their appreciation of the module material
concerning financial management relevant to the operation of engineering
related businesses.Brief Description of the assessment:Quantitative and qualitative financial evaluation based largely around a high
technology business proposal covering most aspects of the taught module and
inviting discussion and speculation to show awareness. The report is in four
parts worth 25% each part.Learning outcomes for the assessment (refer to the appropriate module
learning outcomes)Students will be able to demonstrate the following: Development of a business plan including preparing financial statementsSpecifically: Financial statement analysis Product and market review Financial analysis and forecasting Investment appraisal Assessment criteria:The students will be required to:Prepare an individual assignment (no shared work). State any assumptions.Full references and sources of all materials must be stated.Required content for formal report Parts 1-4 are given on the following pages.Assessment method by which a student can demonstrate the learning
outcomes:Business planning for a new product proposal including financial analysis in a
single report that is marked by module tutor. Weighting:50% of module marksFormat of the assessment/coursework: (Guidelines on the expected format and
length of submission): Note: appendices are not included in the word count for
this report.Format is a formal written report of maximum word limit of 3000 words (word
limit to be stated on the front cover) including diagrams, calculations
(including data; formula; workings and assumptions) and comments. Report
should comprise Title Page, Abstract/Introduction and Parts 1 – 4. Also (not
included in word count): References and Appendices (if needed).Indicative reading list:Finance and Accounting for Business 2nd Edition (2008) by Bob Ryan (Thomson
Learning; ISBN 10 – 1844808971).Key Management Ratios 4th Ed (2006) by Ciaran Walsh (Financial Times/
Prentice Hall).Competing on Analytics (2007) by T.H. Davenport and J.G. Harris (Harvard Bus
Sch Press)Other essential information may be found in the lecture slides and materials
on u-link.Other information Use your student ids for anonymity (i.e. no student names on the assignment
itself).Obtain market forecasts and market trend data.
ASSIGNMENT: PDA Business Plan (3000 word limit)
Logitech is a global consumer electronics company ( They
are looking to expand their business and are aiming to develop
vehicle-mounted PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant). These vehicle-mounted
PDAs are compact computer terminals which can be mounted on forklifts; field
service vehicles; construction trucks or transport vehicles.
Vehicle-mounted PDAs are used by firms in many fields including roadside
assistance; warehouse vehicles; logistics and industrial monitoring and
control. Employees use the PDA as a small computer to record business
transactions and communicate progress with the organisations information
systems. Thus, PDAs are not just used as computers but for also accessing
databases for services and applications (e.g. a field services engineer fixing
equipment at the customer site). Vehicle-mounted PDAs may have wireless
connectivity such as Bluetooth (a wireless LAN interface) or even cellular or
mobile phone connectivity.
Prepare a formal written report: The assignment is to develop the business case to support the design and
manufacture of PDAs. Use of diagrams and tables are encouraged. The expected
UK market sales for PDAs in the first two months are £20 Million and £21
Million respectively. Logitech’s expected sales for PDAs depend on their
anticipated market share of between 0.5% and 2% (which you should specify).
Logitech’s sales forecasts are expected to increase gradually so that in Year 4
revenues are approximately twice the Year 1 sales.

Part 1) Business Review of Logitech.Evaluate the global consumer electronics company Logitech
( in terms of their financial and market position:
1. Evaluate Logitech’s product portfolio using the Product Life Cycle. Make a
product and market review (of trends etc..) for the UK PDA opportunity.
2. Conduct a financial statement analysis of Logitech using ratio analysis
based on their published annual reports (to be accessed via the Internet).
Tabulate the formula and data used and clearly show your results. Ensure
that you include in your assessment comments regarding the interpretation of
the ratio calculations. Comment on Logitech’s ability to finance a new product

Part 2) Logitech Resource and Cost Estimation. Prepare a detailed cash flow forecast (in £ Sterling), on a yearly basis for the
first four years of production of the PDAs by Logitech. Clearly identify the
operational requirements and associated costs (e.g. transportation etc..).
Establish the contribution margin through an appraisal of costs (variable and
fixed) and a competitive pricing proposal. Conduct a Break-even analysis
(including a C-V-P chart), to determine required production capacity and
associated required sales.

Part 3) Netgage Financial Analysis.Netgage is a (fictitious) UK based medium sized engineering company providing
handheld terminals to the logistics sector. Logitech approach Netgage and ask
them to carry out the manufacturing of the PDAs (for some or all of the sales
volumes indicated). The last two monthly P&L Statements of Netgage Ltd are
given in Table 1. The sales volumes in both statements are within Netgage’s
relevant range.
Prepare the P&L Statements for Netgage covering the first year of the Logitech
contract in the typical format used for a) financial accounting and b)
management accounting. Allow for floorspace expansion. Clearly state any
assumptions made.
Sales £50,000
Less costs: Materials £25,000Machining costs 7,500Variable Selling 1,500Production labour 5,250Packaging 1,250Rent 2,100Marketing 300Property taxes 600Total costs 43,500Profit /income £ 6,500 Sales £80,000
Less costs: Materials £40,000Machining costs 12,000Variable Selling 2,400Production labour 8,400Packaging 2,000Rent 2,100Marketing 300Property taxes 600Total costs 67,800Profit /income £12,200Table 1. Last two monthly Profit and Loss Statements for Netgage Ltd
Part 4) Logitech Business Case.Logitech have decided to outsource the manufacture of the PDAs to Netgage and
to pay a specialist software development firm to produce a bespoke software
solution for the proposed PDA product. Conduct a financial appraisal for
Logitech as follows:
1. Prepare profit & Loss projections for Years 1 through 4 for Logitech in the
typical format used for financial accounting based on cost breakdowns and
analysis including capital required for the venture.
2. Conduct a capital investment appraisal of the product software which is to be
developed by a specialist software development sub-contractor at a charge of
£100,000. Use the “Net Present Value” (NPV) method to assess this capital
investment showing the development cost in Year 0 vs the net cash flows from
Years 1 through 4 (from the P&L projections just prepared). Estimate the IRR
(Internal Rate of Return).
3. Propose value management principles and practices for business
performance including Value chain analysis (for the PDA product) and
performance measures such as Analytics (Davenport and Harris, 2007).
you can use this book as a material (finance and accounting for business by Bob
Ryan 79226478 [?]Case Study - Tiffany & Co. [?]Order Type: Case Study [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.6 [?] Number of pages: 13 (Double Spaced) [?]
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This has to be a case study/strategic analysis on a specific company - Tiffany &
Co. The information for this case has to come from my book from the class. Book
ISBN is 9780132323468 (11th edition). The cases are in the back of the book. It is
Case 15, Tiffany & Co.: A Specialty Fine Jewelry Retailer. My professor would
like us to follow a guideline given in the book on page 26 (which is Appendix 1.A
called Strategic Audit of a Corporation). There are 8 sections that should be
used if applicable. .Thank you,Libby 71228158 [?]transport operations (maritime business) [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $6.51 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 2:22 [?] Total: $32.55 [?] Number of sources: 10 [?] Style: Harvard [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 1 days 11 hours 52 minutes Status: Order is available
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Course Code: MAR COURSE: Maritime Operations Programme
Unit Code: MAR108 UNIT: Transport Operations
Assessment No.: IU1 Assessment Type: Report Weighting: 50%
Please consult the Student Course Handbook for the regulations and
procedures that apply to all assessments. This was handed out at enrolment
and is also available on the Portal or from the Faculty Office RM304.
Hand-out Date to students: w/c 6th October 2008
Latest Hand-in Date (by student): w/c 1st December 2008[Note: Extensions to the published hand-in date will not be given, but refer to
the current guidelines and form for Extenuating Circumstances, available on
the Portal or from the Faculty Office RM304.]
Planned Feedback Date (by Tutor): w/c 5th January 2009[Note: Normally, you will not receive your original work back after marking,
therefore, always keep a copy of what you hand in. However, you should always
receive feedback on your performance.]
Learning Outcomes/Objectives Assessed:[Note: Cross-referenced with the Unit syllabus.]
1 Explain the operational and economic characteristics of shipping.3 Apply the techniques of voyage planning, ship scheduling and costing to
estimate surplus, meet outcomes and to take operational decisions in shipping
sectors.5 Produce a professional report to acceptable business standards.6 Communicate effectively using appropriate technologies.
Assessment Criteria:
Task 1 10%Task 2 30%Task 3 10%Task 4 20%Task 5 20%Report structure, clarity, presentation & referencing 10%

Assessment prepared by: …………….. Signature……………… Date ……………..
Internally Moderated by: ……………… Signature ……………… Date ………………
Lecturers must provide a copy of the full Assignment to the Faculty Office for
filing if it is not included in the UIG.
You are operations assistant for a dry bulk shipowner, responsible for the
commercial operation of the company’s panamax bulk carriers. The company
has decided to submit a bid for the annual shipment of coking coal to the
Iskenderun Iron & Steel Works, Turkey.
The contract invites freight offers (in US$ per tonne) for the transport of 1.5
million tonnes of coking coal to Iskenderun, from four loading ports as follows:
• Roberts Bank (Canada) 400,000 tonnes• Hampton Roads (USA) 500,000 tonnes• Gladstone (Australia) 500,000 tonnes• Richard’s Bay (RSA) 100,000 tonnes.
Write a report for the operations manager, which includes the results of tasks
1-5 below.
1. Calculate the maximum amount of coal that can be loaded at the load port,
the hold utilisation and departure draft.
2. Estimate the cost per tonne of cargo for a round voyage from Roberts Bank,
Hampton Roads, Gladstone and Richards Bay to Iskenderun, by panamax bulk
carrier. The voyage from Richards Bay to Iskenderun is to be calculated via the
Suez Canal and via the Cape of Good Hope for comparison purposes.
3. Estimate the minimum number of ships that will be required to complete
the contract over the year and propose how they might be most efficiently
allocated between the ports.
4. Summarise the contractual obligations in respect of:(a) Requirements for all ships on the contract (b) Nominating ships for each shipment(c) Keeping to the loading laycan schedule and consequences for not(d) Delays and deviations en route(e) Notification of arrival at load and discharge ports.
5. Discuss any reservations you have regarding costs, completing the
shipments to time and the suitability of the ships for the contract.

1. The ship particulars apply to all ships on the contract. Assume the stowage
factor (SF) of coking coal is 2.3m3 per tonne.
2. Fuel may be taken at the load port, discharge port or en route, whichever is
the cheapest per tonne (representative current fuel costs to be used). IFO
consumption as per ship particulars. MDO consumption is 6 tonnes per port call
only. Ships must not deviate when fuel is taken en route. Allow 12 hours per
bunker stem and nil port charges.
3. The cost of transiting the Panama and Suez Canal, including any associated
expenses, should be calculated using current tariff. Suez Canal Net Tonnage
(SCNT) 38,250. Panama Canal Net Ton (PC/UMS) 33,230. Gross Tonnage (GT)
4. Laytime at each port is to be calculated on cargo quantity and load/discharge
rates shown in Appendices 1 & 2 of the contract
5. Port costs at Robert’s Bank and Hampton Roads are to be calculated according
to the tariff available on the port website. The costs to be used at other ports
are as follows:(a) Gladstone US$90,000(b) Richards Bay US$47,000(c) Iskenderun US$50,000
6. Ship running costs are US$ 5 000 per day.
7. Ship constants 300 tonnes plus 200 tonnes of water, at all times.
8. A time margin of 10% for delays at sea and in port should be included.
9. There is NO need to obtain the AMWELSH 93 coal charter party referred to in
the contract.
10. Calculations are to be made using Excel spreadsheet, each voyage to fit one
side of A4, with row and column labels. Include a copy of the cell formula on a
separate sheet and include all spreadsheets in the Report Appendix). The word
count for Tasks 4 & 5 should be no more than 500 words each. Task 4 is to be in
your OWN words. All explanations and assumptions must be provided. This is
an INDIVIDUAL assignment - spreadsheets must NOT be shared, including the
In addition to Library sources, the following may be useful: Port of Vancouver: www.portvancouver.comRoberts Bank Terminal: www.westshore.comGladstone Port Authority: Roads: Richard’s Bay: Iskenderun: Isdemir: Panama Canal: www.pancanal.comSuez Canal agents: www.lethsuez.comBunker prices: Marine distances: 72227564 [?]Learning Outcomes in Student Affairs Administration [?]Order Type: Term Paper [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $6.11 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 3:06 [?] Total: $30.55 [?] Number of sources: 4 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 1 days 12 hours 37 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
As a graduate student in the student affairs administration in higher
education curriculum. I must reflect on learning outcomes relatd to the class.
Learning outcomes may take form of particuar aspects of the course such as
legal issues that influence and inform student affairs practice. I need to
describe my learning outcomes for class, this report should include reflections
on 33 chapters from the following resources: The Handbook of Student Affairs
Administration, by Barr, MJ., & Desler, MK (Ed) (2000). Chapters 1 - 33 except
chapter 25. Also from the three articles, The student learning imperative:
Implications for student affairs, (1996) online at Also article #2 Principles of good
practice for student affairs, (online) Available at The last article #3 is Learning
Reconsidered: A Campus0wide focus on the Student Experience. I do not know
the author. Aportion of the paper could reflect detailed outcomes that may be
listed (bulluets). Other concepts might be appropriately explained. 79229026 [?]T-mobile [?]Order Type: Coursework [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $11.68 [?] Number of pages: 3 (Single Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 3:37 [?] Total: $35.04 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 48 hours Time remaining: 1 days 13 hours 8 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.K.)
Hi I am doing Direct and Indirect Marketing group coursework which is about
T-mobile my part for this assigment is, :....
Communications strategy
• Objectives • Target segments • Product segment alignment • Media lay down
Testing strategy and implementation Contact strategy by segment
• Numbers, cost, response, return on investment, timed
Fulfilment and response Measurement and budgets • LTV by segment • Clear ROI by campaign • ARPU measures • Acquisition to the programme Engagement with it
Thank you 71222279 [?]The Impact of Steroids on American Culture [?]Order Type: Term Paper [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $3.8 [?] Number of pages: 10 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 4:13 [?] Total: $38 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 1 days 13 hours 44 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Files: 1 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
Lisa Handwerker, Ph.D., M.P.H.Medical Anthropology Course, 3720-01
Your final paper must incorporate:a) Personally Relevant Topic. Select a personally relevant topic (e.g. you have a
deep interest in the subject or that you, a family member or a friend has been
impacted by the issue). I want you to select a topic that you feel passionate
about. b) An Interview. Interview an informant (a person who can provide you with
in-depth information about your topic). A signed Informed Consent Form must
be attached to your final paper. (Please refer to sample in class hand-out). You
may video, tape or take detailed notes to record the interview. c) Class Readings/Video. Incorporate and cite a minimum of three class
readings and one class video into your paper to substantiate your ideas.d) Outside Readings; Draw on a minimum of two outside readings and one web
site. Cite all sources. If you have a problem locating sources, please come talk to
me for suggestions. (Good sources include the journals: Medical Anthropology
Quarterly, Social Science and Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine or
alternative health magazines) e) Self-evaluation. In addition to the paper 10-12 pages, you will attach a
separate piece of paper with a self-evaluation several paragraphs in length to
your paper. In this self-evaluation you will tell me what grade you think you
deserve in this class and why. This does not guarantee that grade but rather
gives me an idea of how you assess yourself. You need to be specific about your
participation, attendance (number of lateness, misses etc), to what extent you
read class materials etc.)
Below is a GUIDELINE for your 10-12 page double spaced paper. If this guideline
does not fit your topic, please discuss with me. PLEASE LABEL EACH AND EVERY
PART I. WHAT IS THE TOPIC? WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUE? Describe your topic and the papers goal. Are you focusing on a particular
healer and his/her approach (e.g. Chinese medicine, Herbalist, Chiropractor,
Yoga practitioner, Ayurvedic, Naturopath, Homeopathy, Faith Healer,
Midwife, Witch) or a patient suffering from an illness/disease (e.g. AIDS,
Domestic Violence, Breast Cancer, Epilepsy, Drug Addiction, Infant Mortality)
or other issues (e.g. training programs in Chinese medicine; a specific
alternative medicine and how it challenges or colludes with allopathic
medicine; regulation of an alternative medicine?; public health beliefs?
Please try to narrow your topic. In order to narrow the topic, you may need to
select a specific type of medicine, healer, community, population group (e.g.
prisoners, Medicare recipients, elderly women, African Americans, Ashkenazi
Jews, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Irish, prisoners etc) and a region (Alameda
County, California, Haiti, etc). Discuss why it is important to you and others
–personal, social or ethical concerns (this may overlap with next section).
Sources: Readings and Personal ExperienceSuggested Length: half page
PART II. BREADTH AND SCOPEDescribe how many people are affected by the topic or issue? Include some
statistical information. How many people does the practitioner care for per
day? How many people in the U.S. use alternative medicine? or What is
believed to be the cause(s) (from allopathic and alternative medicine
perspective? How is the issue/problem defined and according to whom? If it is a
health problem, incorporate biomedical information about the problem known
as `disease` (`disease`=pathology, abnormalities as defined by the medical
profession). This description will include the definition, etiology (causes or
explanations of), prevention, and treatment of the disease. Include alternative
medicine approach too.
Sources: Medical texts, health books, newspaper articles, on-line and class
readings.Suggested Length: two pages
EXPERIENCESIn this section you will incorporate your findings from your interviews and
any observations you may have done. For example, you might investigate and
report on the healers training, beliefs, or your own or a family members
illness beliefs and behaviors. Illness beliefs and behaviors include
attentiveness to pain, suffering, and symptoms, definitions of symptoms,
significance and meaning attached to illness (e.g. illness metaphors), the
timing and source of seeking help, ways to maintain health, expectations of
treatment, roles in treatment, changes in role performance, changes in
relation to others, the experience of the embodied or disembodied self.
[Depending on your topic, questions you could explore include but are not
limited: What are the differences between disease/illness? Draw on Arthur
Kleinman’s eight questions (listed in The Spirit Catches You and You Fall
Down) Did you (or family member or friend) visit a biomedical doctor and/or
other healers? (Describe each of their approaches and the different ways in
which they interpreted your sickness.). Discuss treatment, if any, and
attitudes toward medicine or treatment. How did family members and friends
treat sick person? When you or person got sick what kinds of explanations were
offered and by whom? Were there any names given to illness from family
members or friends that did not fit with allopathic labels? What emotional
response did person hope to elicit from others? Were there any special foods,
privileges, or `family cures`? What was done to prevent the disease? When and
how did you or person demonstrate s/he was well? How was health defined? In
your family, what was the general feeling about allopathic doctors or
alternative healers? Did family members trust, mistrust, feel indifferent to
biomedicine and/or alternative medicine in general and doctors in particular?
Relate ideas about western and eastern perspectives to your illness.
Sources: interview Suggested Length: six pages
PART IV. LINK TO BROADER CULTURAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC ISSUES In part IV, incorporate what you have learned from your readings and class
discussions. For example, what relationship does your topic and your personal
experiences have to gender? ethnic identity? race? class? religious beliefs?
geographic location? age? sexual orientation? What other cultural, political or
economic factors contribute to the way you think about your illness (e.g.
institution of medicine, affordability and access)? Tell me how a medical
anthropology perspective learned in this class could be helpful in contributing
new insights to the topic. What have you learned from this course?
Sources: Readings and Personal ExperiencesSuggested Length: three and a half pages
Here are some additional questions to guide you. Please do not allow them to
limit you or define the scope of your investigation. I want you to develop your
own coherent argument/thesis in this paper. Since you may have imagined
this project quite differently, feel free to make up your own set of questions
and/or to add to this list of questions. Be creative and do make an appointment
to set me during office hours to discuss your work in progress.
QUESTIONS TO GUIDE YOU:-Kleinman’s eight questions -Relate ideas about labeling, stigma, deviance, control, and power dynamics to
your illness.-What relationship does the alternative healer have to the biomedical world? _What are the complex socio-political issues at stake in seeking out a
bipomedical doctor?-What are the costs involved?-What relationship did your illness experience have to your gender? ethnicity?
class? religious beliefs? sexual orientation? age? disability?-What other social or cultural factors contribute to the way you or the healer
approaches illness?-In your family (or group of origin) what is/was defined as “being sick`? Did this
differ between female and male family members?-Who decided you were sick? sick role? (hint: Talcott Parsons)-What was the first thing you did (or was done to you) when you were sick?-Did you go to see a doctor? Describe your experiences.(who, when, where, what, why)-Did you visit any other health practitioners or healers?(Describe each of their approaches and the different ways in which they
interpreted your sickness.)-What, if any, medicine did you take? Discuss medicine and your attitudes
towardmedicine or treatment. -What other types of treatment have you tried? Describe treatment and
beliefs.-In what ways did economic factors effect your initial decision to seek (or not
seek care)care and any subsequent decisions regarding care or treatment?-How did family members (friends , etc) treat you when you were sick?-How did you feel when you got sick?-Who did you look towards for comfort or support? What did that mean?-What other issues were you addressing in your life at the time?-When you got sick what kinds of explanations were offered?-Were there any names given to your illness from family members or friends
that did not fit with biomedicines labeling?-When you are sick what is (or your friends or family members) your relation
to your body? How did/does that change from when you are well?-What emotional response did you hope to elicit from others? Did you get that
response? Why or why not? -What activities did you (or others) give yourself permission to miss when you
were sick?-Were there any special foods, privileges, or `family cures`? -What was done to prevent disease? -When and how did you demonstrate you were well? How was health defined?-What happened when someone else in your family got hurt or sick?-In your family, what was the general feeling about doctors? hospitals?
treatment?-Did family members trust, mistrust, feel indifferent to medicine in general
and doctors in particular?

My topic will be The Impact of Steroids on the American Culture,Focus on the anthropological point of view
Focus on the culture impact of steroids on American Culture The age group primarily focused on isHigh school to collegeThe Sports that will be focused on isBaseball and Football 71228693 [?]Referee Gambling in Team Sports [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $6.35 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 4:21 [?] Total: $25.4 [?] Number of sources: 4 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 3 days Time remaining: 1 days 13 hours 52 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Files: 2 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
-At least one source needs to be from an actual book. (this does not include
encyclopedias)-this research paper has to balance emotional arguement with logical
arguement. Cazum McLaughlin
6 November 2008
Thesis: In this era, team sports are supervised by referees, but a few put
sportsmanship aside and replace it with lies and greed. From intentional foul
calls to illegal gambling, team sports are not being broadcasted in a respective,
truthful manner to the world. Reform within the system can only solve this
issue by thoroughly examining each current referee and those that will be
newly employed for any instance of gambling.
Referees in team sport activities play important roles on the court and on the
They make sure games are played amongst the coaches and players in a
respectful, positive manner.
Superior authority
They set the tone for an entire game.
Shaking of hands
Gambling, in all forms, is the downfall of any organization that does not
endorse it, especially refereeing.
The thought of making more money the easy way greatly induces some referees
to make the wrong decisions.
Betting on games is illegal, especially worse when one can have the upper hand.
Some referees that have gambled on games have actually gambled on games in
which they referred in.
2006 season of the NBA—Tim Donaghy (13 seasons)
Statistical information on certain games may not be creditable due to
If those referees betting on games in which they refereed in, players’
points, rebounds, or yards, etc. are not valid.
Michael Jordan, Emmit Smith, Babe Ruth?
Revaluation of games
Intentional foul calling can destroy the sportsmanship on both teams and can
possibly favor the other team.
Gambling in any team sport degrades the sports’ value amongst society.
Less viewers may watch
Loss of sponsors
Veterans of team sports ashamed
Extraneous amount of reform can only solve this issue.
Vigorous background checks must be held with current referees and during the
employment process for new referees.
Check for debt problems
Study past games in which some referees show adequate evidence in which they
may have gambled in.
Form a committee that is against gambling within the system of team sports.
Preserve the game’s integrity.
You do not have to follow this exact format, you may add on, but this is the
general idea I have for the outline. Thank you 
At least one source has to come from a book. (This does not include
encyclopedias) and 4 to 5 sources total—thank you 

72229037 [?]MYTHS AND ARCHETYPES [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $5.52 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 4:25 [?] Total: $22.08 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 48 hours Time remaining: 1 days 13 hours 56 minutes Status: Order is available
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Composition and Critical ThinkingMYTHS AND ARCHETYPES
Procedures:1. Cover page2. Outline3. Essay (Myths and Archetypes)4. Works Cited
Writing Prompt
Write a comparison of masculinity and femininity based on Robert A Johnson’s
Understanding Masculine Psychology “HE” and Understanding Feminine
Psychology “She”. In addition to a thorough knowledge of the myths of Parsifal
and the Holy Grail and Amor and Psyche, your paper should demonstrate an
understating of Carl Jung’s psychology of gender.
Your essay topic should be generated from critically reading, analyzing and
comparing the Jungian interpretation of the two myths. Refer back to your
quiz to see the ideas you can develop further. You can discuss the differences
between men and women or the different challenges men and women face in
the journey toward self-understanding and happiness.
Your paper should demonstrate an ability to synthesize main points from
these texts in a line of argument that develops a strong thesis to a conclusion.
You should incorporate references from both texts using the summarizing,
paraphrasing and quoting techniques leaned in class.
This paper should be your most polished piece of work.
Remember to:1. Define Jungian terms2. Use the compare and contrast argumentation mode3. Use examples to support your thesis4. Refer back to your quiz for ideas5. Narrow your topic – explore it in-depth6. Incorporate references to both texts by Johnson7. Document your sources using MLA style8. Very your transition phrases9. Include your Outline and works cited
Jungian Analysis of Parsifal and the Holy Grail Quiz One
1. What is the psychological significance of the “wound” in the Fisher King
complex?2. What is the psychological significance of the mythic “quest”?3. What does the Grail Castle symbolize?4. What does the Holy Grail symbolize?5. How did Parsifal first enter the Grail Castle?6. Why did it take Parsifal so many years to return to the Grail Castle?7. What is the “anima”?8. What are the different stages of Parsifal’s “anima awareness”?9. How des Parsifal overcome his “mother complex”?10. What do Parsifal’s mother’s homespun clothes symbolize?11. How does Blanche Fleur inspire Parsifal’s journey?12. What does the Red Knight symbolize, in masculine psychology?13. Why does Parsifal need to remove the Red Knight’s armor to re-enter the
Grail Castle?14. What does the “Hideous Damsel” symbolize in masculine psychology?15. What does the hermit symbolize in masculine psychology?16. Why did Gournamond tell Parsifal never to seduce or be seduced by a
woman?17. What is the significance of “service” in Arthur’s Court?18. Why is the myth left unfinished?19. How does Parsifal’s quest symbolize the development of masculine identity?20. What is the psychological significance of myth?21. What is the psychological significance of an archetype?22. How do ancient myths and archetypes underpin contemporary
constructions of gender?23. Why is Parsifal an example of “the hero with a thousand faces”?24. How does Parsifal’s quest relate to the American Frontier myth?25. How would you revamp the myth to reflect current paradigm shifts in the
construction of masculine?
Jungian Interpretation of Amor and Psyche Quiz Two
1. What is the psychological significance of marriage and death of Psyche?2. What is the mythic significance of the two evolution of femininity
symbolized by Aphrodite and Psyche?3. What do the causes of Aphrodite’s birth symbolize?4. What do the causes of Psyche’s birth symbolize?5. How did Psyche first enter Paradise?6. Why did Eros insist that Psyche could not ask questions or look at him?7. What is the “animus”?8. What are the different states of Psyche’s integration of her animus and
Aphrodite nature?9. How does Psyche overcome her “animus possession”?10. What do Psyche’s sword and the lamp symbolize?11. What do the sisters represent in feminine psychology?12. What is the “transcendent function” of Psyche’s four tasks?13. What does Psyche learn from each task?14. How does “nature” come to Psyche’s rescue?15. What does Psyche’s second death in the underworld represent?16. What is the significance of Aphrodite’s attendance at Psyche’s wedding?17. What does the birth of Psyche’s child, Pleasure, represent?18. Why does the myth have so many different love spells?19. Why is Psyche’s evolution significant to our understanding of femininity?20. What is the psychological significance of Psyche’s re-union with Eros?21. What is the psychological significance of death, sleep, birth, and re-birth in
the myth?22. How do ancient myths and archetypes influence current ideas of gender?23. Name some Psyche and Aphrodite archetypes in recent film and television.24. Name some symbolic feminine death and re-birth evolutions in recent film
and television.25. How would you re-write the Psyche myth to reflect gender paradigm shifts? Press the button if you are SURE that you are not interested in this order. Once
you press it, the order will not be shown in the Available Orders list any more.
[?] 78229093 [?]Psychological Research Laboratory [?]Order Type: Research Proposal [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $5.85 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 6:51 [?] Total: $29.25 [?] Number of sources: 6 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 48 hours Time remaining: 1 days 16 hours 22 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 1(1 new) [?] Files: 25 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
The assignment consists of a five-page research proposal. Choose 1 of the 14
topics from the list below.
1. You would like to know what is the best way to study information so thatyou will memorize it later.
2- You would like to figure out what is the best way to train your dog tofetch either the ball or the toy.
3- How many tasks can one efficiently carry on at the same time?
4. Design a study examining the efficacy of two different types of psychotherapy
for a specific psychological disorder such as depression or anxiety disorder.
5. Select a psychological disorder and design a study utilizing MRI technology to
examine brain function related to the disorder
6. Design a study to test the validity of one of Erik Erikson’s stages of
psychosocial development
7. You are interested in the development of language in bilingual children. Do
the language skills of these children develop in the same way as monolingual
8. Do male and female rats learn spatial navigation tasks in the same way?
Design a study to test this using the radial arm maze or T-maze.
9. You are interested in the voting practices of young Canadians in the
upcoming election. Design a study to examine this.
10. Design a study to examine dieting practices of young college students and
how these might be related to body image
11. Design a study to examine the effects of stress on health in college students
12. Design a study to examine the impact of workplace stress on productivity
within an organization.
13. Design a study to examine the possible connection between mild cognitive
impairment and Alzheimer’s disease
14. Design a study to examine the impact of caring for a relative with
Alzheimer’s disease (one could either look at the impact on health or learning
and memory)
The proposal requires an abstract, introduction, methods, and reference
section, and references do not count towards the five pages. Since you will not
actually be conducting the experiment, you do NOT need to have a discussion
section. However, you will be required to submit your search results (on your
selected topic only) from Psych Info.: print your search results, including
abstracts (to writer: please send me the Psych Info and other abstract search
results so I can print them out later, thank you)A very detailed marking scheme has been posted below to assist you in writing
your paper. Pay particular attention to the components required for the
abstract, introduction and methods sections. For example, your introduction
should only contain information relevant to your specific area of research,
arranged in the form of an argument. Thus, you must integrate your own ideas
and critical thought into this section. Do not simply state fact after fact,
without a structure.

1) ABSTRACT: 150 words or less; brief and concise introduction to the paper;
states problem under study, hypothesis, characteristics of participants, brief
overview of procedure, predicted results (you would normally state your actual
results here), and possible implications of study.
2) INTRODUCTION: (2-3 pages) literature review/presentation of the rationale
of the study
a.Summary statement of the problem under study: context/significanceb.Literature review: description of past research and theory relevant to the
topic under study (inclusion of at least six additional references, five of which
have to be peer reviewed empirical journal articles)c.Information clearly related and logically connected to proposed study d.Understanding of informatione.Information provided in a clear and concise mannerf.Presentation of the rationale of the study in a clear, precise and coherent
fashiong.Presentation of the variables being studied and the predicted resultsh.Logical flow from the information presented to the statement of the
hypothesis (facts and past research presented within a coherent argument
outlining why the hypothesis is expected. Critical thinking and integration of
your own ideas)
a.Participants: description of the participants b. Material: description of the material usedc. Procedure: chronological description of the study (steps, instructions)d. Experimental design: type of study (i.e. experimental/quasi-experimental);
description of the independent and dependent variables; specify operational
definition of variable(s)
a. References cited in text conform with reference list and vice-versab. APA format (12pt. Font, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins, double-space, etc)
6) PSYCH INFO SEARCH 78228403 [?]Education Paper [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $5.02 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 17:09 [?] Total: $25.1 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 2 days 2 hours 40 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Files: 1 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
I will post the full instructions in a word document, but for now,a 5 page paper
on What would best motivate high-school students to do their best possible
work? Such things like money, technology, and staffing are not a problem -
consider that your resources are unlimited. Use at least 5 external sources 78228403 [?]Education Paper [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $5.02 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 30 17:09 [?] Total: $25.1 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 2 days 2 hours 40 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Files: 1 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
I will post the full instructions in a word document, but for now,a 5 page paper
on What would best motivate high-school students to do their best possible
work? Such things like money, technology, and staffing are not a problem -
consider that your resources are unlimited. Use at least 5 external sources 72224848 [?]essay [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $3.9 [?] Number of pages: 8 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: November 29 21:25 [?] Total: $31.2 [?] Number of sources: 1 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 1 days 6 hours 55 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
This is what professor wants for this paper.
Book: How the Mind Works by Steven Pinker
I want you to focus on Chapter One (Standard equipment) of How the Mind
Works. Discuss each section of that chapter in detail, stating exactly what
Pinker is discussing and what he is trying to show in each section. Do not
include anything outside Chapter One of this book in your essay. 76228194 [?]How the Casino designs in Las Vegas, such as use of lighting, space/furniture
arrangement, and creating a magical-out-of-this-world place, drains the
money out of people psychologically? (in people i mean: customers, visitors,
people that come to Vegas). [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.5 [?] Number of pages: 7 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 3 3:25 [?] Total: $31.5 [?] Number of sources: 6 [?] Style: Turabian [?] Urgency: 7 days Time remaining: 4 days 12 hours 19 minutes Status: Order is available
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1. Should use both primary sources (actual period documents and objects) and
secondary sources (writing about the topic).2. Needs citations and bibliography.3. Limit internet sources, and MUST include at least one academic journal
article and two actual books in the list of sources. 4. Discuss issues related to design and visual culture in the paper.5. Cannot be a biography of one designer or artist.6. Needs to show clarity of presentation, depth of research, and ability to
articulate a clear thesis. *No needs for intellectual vocabulary words, just need basic/simple words to
lay out the facts.* 71222834 [?]Book review [?]Order Type: Book Review [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $4.4 [?] Number of pages: 7 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 3 4:36 [?] Total: $30.8 [?] Number of sources: 20 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 4 days 13 hours 30 minutes Status: Order is available
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Robbins/ Coulter Management, 9th ed Prentice Hall
At the beginning of the paper, list the 18 key points that you learned. Key
points must be written per syllabus guidelines. There should be 2 key points
from each of the remaining 9 chapters. CH 11-19
Number the points in beginning of the essay.
paper must have an introduction, and end with a summary. Please label each
Provide a reference list of at least 20 outside references. Please use APA format
and check the syllabus for references that are not counted. (see grading
This paper must be at least 2000 words and word count must be recorded. 79226502 [?]Final AIS Paper [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: MasterCompensation per page: $7.3 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 3 3:11 [?] Total: $36.5 [?] Number of sources: 9 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 4 days 12 hours 5 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
Please make sure there are online sources and references included with other
resources. There are to charts that also need to be created in MS Excel also for
this paper. Thanks. AIS ProjectThe project will demonstrate your comprehension of accounting systems and
yourability to effectively communicate in writing.Part I: Understanding of Transaction CyclesPart I of your project requires you to examine three transactional cycles
(revenue cycle &expenditure cycle) to determine (a) what activities constitutes each cycle and
(b) whattransactions; documents; documents; data; and control issues are associated
with each them.For the Revenue & Expenditure cycles, the activities have been identified for
you and the tableis partially completed. A copy of these tables can be found on page 2 of this
document. NOTE:You may want to recreate these tables in Microsoft Excel since it will be easier
to fill in the necessarydata.Part II: Examining a Real Life Accounting Information SystemPart II of your project requires you to review a current accounting information
system to seehow the system handles (a) recording activities (b) collecting data; and (c)
generating reports /information as you have identified from Part I of this project. The accounting
systems that youuse for this exercise includes, but is not limited to the following:• *Peachtree Complete Accounting or ePeachtree (• *Quickbooks or Quickbooks Online (• *Microsoft Dynamics (• An accounting information system that you are currently using (however,
you can notuse Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Access as your selection for these are only tools
andnot AIS systems)*it is recommended that you visit the product’s web site and either download a
trial version or request that a trialversion be sent to you via e-mail. If you plan to do this, please do it early so
that you will have product in handbefore Week 4 of our class.The analysis will be broken down into the following areas:Areas of Emphasis What is RequiredOverview Provide a general overview of the product. The overview shouldbe no more than 1-2 pages.Transactional Processing Describe how the product handles processing the
accountingtransactions and recording business activities which are indicatedin Part I. You should provide at least one example of how onewould record a specific accounting transaction / business activitywithin the product for each transaction cycle.Data Management Describe how the product handles recording the necessary
data(as indicated in Part I) to support transactional processing.Reporting Describe how the product produces information that can be use tomanage the business. Identify at least three key reports for eachof the transaction cycles that would be used and explain theirimportance.Final Thoughts Your final thoughts regarding the product.The review will be in the form of a paper and the paper should be a minimum
of five pages(excluding title page, TOC, references, appendix).

AIS ProjectThe project will demonstrate your comprehension of accounting systems and
yourability to effectively communicate in writing.Part I: Understanding of Transaction CyclesPart I of your project requires you to examine three transactional cycles
(revenue cycle &expenditure cycle) to determine (a) what activities constitutes each cycle and
(b) whattransactions; documents; documents; data; and control issues are associated
with each them.For the Revenue & Expenditure cycles, the activities have been identified for
you and the tableis partially completed. A copy of these tables can be found on page 2 of this
document. NOTE:You may want to recreate these tables in Microsoft Excel since it will be easier
to fill in the necessarydata.Part II: Examining a Real Life Accounting Information SystemPart II of your project requires you to review a current accounting information
system to seehow the system handles (a) recording activities (b) collecting data; and (c)
generating reports /information as you have identified from Part I of this project. The accounting
systems that youuse for this exercise includes, but is not limited to the following:• *Peachtree Complete Accounting or ePeachtree (• *Quickbooks or Quickbooks Online (• *Microsoft Dynamics (• An accounting information system that you are currently using (however,
you can notuse Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Access as your selection for these are only tools
andnot AIS systems)*it is recommended that you visit the product’s web site and either download a
trial version or request that a trialversion be sent to you via e-mail. If you plan to do this, please do it early so
that you will have product in handbefore Week 4 of our class.The analysis will be broken down into the following areas:Areas of Emphasis What is RequiredOverview Provide a general overview of the product. The overview shouldbe no more than 1-2 pages.Transactional Processing Describe how the product handles processing the
accountingtransactions and recording business activities which are indicatedin Part I. You should provide at least one example of how onewould record a specific accounting transaction / business activitywithin the product for each transaction cycle.Data Management Describe how the product handles recording the necessary
data(as indicated in Part I) to support transactional processing.Reporting Describe how the product produces information that can be use tomanage the business. Identify at least three key reports for eachof the transaction cycles that would be used and explain theirimportance.Final Thoughts Your final thoughts regarding the product.The review will be in the form of a paper and the paper should be a minimum
of five pages(excluding title page, TOC, references, appendix).

Recreate these tables in Microsoft Excel:
AC571 AIS ProjectUnderstanding of Transaction CyclesREVENUE TRANSACTIONAL CYCLEContactCustomerCustomerAgrees toSaleApproveCreditTransferGoodsBillCustomerReceiveRemittanceCreditAccountsReceivableDepositCashAccountingTransactionSaleJournalEntryDr. CashCr. A/RDocuments Purchaseorder fromcustomerDataCollectedName
personDepartment AccountingControlIssuesOnlyapprovedcustomersget creditInformationRequiredInformationGeneratedAC571 AIS Project

EXENDITURE TRANSACTIONAL CYCLERequestPurchaseof GoodsApprovePurchasesReceive Goods ReceiveInvoiceApproveVendor InvoicePrepareCheckPay VendorAccountingTransactionJournalEntryDr. InventoryCr. A/PDocuments Purchase OrderDataCollected•Name•Item #•Qty.Department Accounts PayableControlIssuesOrder onlywhat isneededInformationRequired*InformationGenerated* 71229006 [?]Fashion Photography criticizing photographys [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $3.7 [?] Number of pages: 9 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 3 2:14 [?] Total: $33.3 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 4 days 11 hours 9 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Files: 1 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.K.)
answer the question in 2000-2500 words:`the new malleability of the image may eventually lead to a profound
undermining of photographys status as an inherently truthful pictorial
Fred Ritchin, from The critical image:essays on contemporary
photograpgy,ed.C.Squires (london:lawrence&wishart) page. 28
Have technological developments undermined the truthfl nature of
photography or have they provided new creative possibilities? Discuss in
relation to fashion imagery.
please include 3-5 photos and no wikipedia is allowed for referencing.i;ve
attached the recommended reading list that may help for a better
understanding of this topic and you may use some of it as the main reference
for the essay.thank you! 78222361 [?]Rubbish Management [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $3 [?] Number of pages: 8 (Double Spaced) [?] Deadline:
December 3 0:26 [?] Total: $24 [?] Number of sources: 6 [?] Style: Harvard [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 4 days 9 hours 21 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 1(1 new) [?] Files: 1 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.K.)
The way an organisation is structured and the controls put in place to monitor
that organisation’s activities are essential in keeping it efficient and allowing
it to grow in a controlled and structured manner. An area which has often
proved difficult to control is service industries, where customers’ satisfaction
is paramount.
Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of this assignment, the student should be able to:-
1. Describe, select and apply theory and techniques to analyse a business’
external and internal environment to support the development of
management alternatives.
2. Identify and apply relevant organisational theory to diagnose
organisational difficulties and generate suitable recommendations for change.

The Brief
The ‘Rubbish is Us’ (a PPP rubbish collection company) have been granted the
right under a new government initiative to collect the rubbish in Derby UK.
The company hopes to obtain a fleet of Lorries and personnel to do this.
‘Rubbish is Us’ has no in house expertise in rubbish collection, so they hope to
establish a small management team that will sub contract the work to other
organisations. The work which has to be carried out is
• Obtaining and maintaining a fleet of waste collection Lorries.
• Recruiting and training the personnel required.
• Collecting and disposing of the rubbish and proving evidence to government
that this is being done cost effectively.
The management team has to be able to provide this service at the best
possible price.
You have to provide a suggested structure for the management team to
‘Rubbish is Us’ and identify how the various parties involved can be motivated
and controlled to do the job in the most effective way.
You are allowed a management team of no more than 20 people and the
company is allowed to sub contract some or all of the work. The management
team though must be capable of supervising all aspects of the work and
providing the required feedback. Careful thought must be applied to the skills
required of each member of this team and how they interact.
Submission RequirementsYour recommendations should take the form of a report which should include
the following:-• An organisational chart showing the roles, responsibilities and skills
required of the personnel. 25%• An analysis of the controls to be used and how they would be applied. 25%• An analysis of the motivators required and there operation. 30%• Recommendations on how the work should be managed. 20%
Emphasise should be placed on the management and change aspects of this
problem not the physical difficulties of waste collection.
This is an individual assignment
Reading MaterialsModule lecture and support notes.See also module reading listNote: These sources are guides only to commonly available material. Students
will also be expected to consult other relevant source material.
Submission Requirements
The assignment will need to be approximately 2000 words in length.
3 sources from internet Acadmic website.. 72228957 [?]Alighieri, Dante. Inferno. Trans. John Ciardi. New York: Perennial Classics,
1982.) [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $4.1 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 2 23:07 [?] Total: $20.5 [?] Number of sources: 1 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 4 days 8 hours 2 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
the Taming of the Shrew: Analyze the ethics of this play in terms of either the
treatment of Christopher Sly (in the framing narrative) or in the treatment of
Kate. What is Shakespeare saying about the acceptable/unacceptable
treatment of others? Go beyond mere categorries as feminism and patriarchy,
and book at the core treatment and presentation of the subject of ethics. Use
outside research and analyze three passages from the play to support your
- please use quotes.
- please use only ( Alighieri, Dante. Inferno. Trans. John Ciardi. New York:
Perennial Classics, 1982.) as source. 79228939 [?]Accounting research [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $4.1 [?] Number of pages: 9 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 2 21:50 [?] Total: $36.9 [?] Number of sources: 4 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 4 days 6 hours 46 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Files: 4 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
Accounting Assignment
A research of 2,000-2,500 words about how gender ethics effect the business or
whether each genders ethics better than the other in the business field. Please
read the 4 articles as they explain the matter well. I want a summary plus
explaining well the theories found in the 4 articles. 74227867 [?]Art and Culture of the Renaissance [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $4.86 [?] Number of pages: 10 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 2 17:05 [?] Total: $48.6 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 7 days Time remaining: 4 days 2 hours 1 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
- using an art data base, research journal articles about philosphy of
scholasticism for question number(1).
-For questions in number (2) use bibliograhies in books about art history
and/or books about the Renaissance.
Use books and journal articles for questions (3) and (4).
Cite references and anserw all questions indicated above. In the note, indicate
which style manual is being used,(MLA.) 71227785 [?]Assessment Tools Analysis [?]Order Type: Coursework [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $6.3 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 2 13:03 [?] Total: $25.2 [?] Number of sources: 4 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 7 days Time remaining: 3 days 22 hours Status: Order is available
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Assessment Tools Analysis
Purpose of this assignment is to provide the student with the opportunity to
examine assessment tools that evaluate on-physical measures. Applying
Watson’s Theory of Human caring integrates the mind-body-spirit dimensions.
Nurses should be knowledgeable in tools to expand the abilities of nurses to
assess and evaluate clients in various stages and states of health, illness, stress
and life.Prepare and submit a 1,050 – 1,400 word, APA-formatted paper, which includes:a. A selection of three assessment tools belowb. Using the Online Library, research the selected toolsc. Describe each tool and the population for which it might be useful. State data
about tool such as cost, length, and ease in using tool, for what populations it is
best designed, and validity of information gainedd. Describe how this tool could enhance the assessment phase of the nursing
process and impact quality of health care delivered by the nursee. Apply these tools to the vulnerable population described in the Vulnerable
Population and Self-Awareness assignment of Week Two
Assessment Tools:Adult Life Stress MeasurementBeck Depression InventoryCalgary Family Assessment ModelCoping Resources Inventory for StressDaily Hassles ScaleDerogatis Stress ProfileDysfunctional Attitude ScaleFamily Adaptability and Cohesion ScaleFamily Hardiness IndexFeetham Family Functioning SurveyHassles and Uplifts InventoryHealth-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HLPL-II)Health Self-Determination Index (HSDI)Health Self-Determination Index for Children (HSDI-C)Index of Core Spiritual ExperiencesMini-Mental State ExamPerceived Stress ScaleSchoolager’s Coping Strategies InventorySocial Support QuestionnaireSpiritual Involvement & Beliefs ScaleSpiritual Perspective ScaleSpiritual Well-Being ScaleState-Trait Anxiety InventoryStress Warning Signals InventoryWays of Coping QuestionnaireWell Being Picture ScalePLEASE have someone that know what he/she is writing about 78223967 [?]Human Resources [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $3 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?] Deadline:
December 2 5:38 [?] Total: $12 [?] Number of sources: 4 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 10 days Time remaining: 3 days 14 hours 35 minutes Status: Order is available
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HRIS Presentation Writing Assignment
During weeks 1 and 2, you reviewed presentations of two different HRIS
Apex Business SoftwareStaff Files
Compare and contrast both applications. Provide detailed information about
their similarities and differences. You may rely on their web sites for
additional information:
Your paper must be 2-4 pages in length and formatted to comply with APA
writing standards. This is especially important if you are relying on the web
sites above or other online resources in your paper. 71228629 [?]Fashion Photograph [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.3 [?] Number of pages: 8 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 2 1:45 [?] Total: $34.4 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 3 days 10 hours 42 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.K.)
Answer the following question
...desire was stimulated by attractive presentation; for example, by using
colours, exotic themes, lighting effects and a phantasmogoria of abundance.Reka Buckley and stephen Gundle, from ;Flash Trash: Gianni Versace and the
theory and practive of flamour;, in ed. Stella Bruzzi and Pamela Church
Gibson, Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations and Analysis, )London and
New York: Routledge:2000)
To what extent is this always the aim of fashion photography? Illustrate your
answer with examples.
-Please use third person for this essay -choose 3-5 photos for example-no wikipedia for reference
consider these questions when interpret a photograph
What is this object that I see?
What is it about?
What does it represent or express?
How does culture influence its construction?
What did it mean to its maker?
What is it a part of?
what are its references?
What is it responding to?
Why did it come to be?
How was it made?
Within what tradition does it belong?
what ends did it possibly seve its maker?
What pleasures or satisfactions did it afford the person responsible for it?
What purpose does it serve its owner or distributor?
Whom does it address? Whom does it ignore?
What problems does it solve, allay, or cause?
What prejudices and preconceptions does it reinforce or disrupt?
What needs does it activate or relieve?
What does it mean to me?
Does it affect my life?
Does it change my view of the world? 72228598 [?]Mock Research Proposal [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $4.9 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 2 0:07 [?] Total: $19.6 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 3 days 9 hours 4 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
You’ve been thinking sociologically for almost one full semester! At many
times throughout these past months, you’ve come up with a sociological
question and wondered: “Who has studied this?” “What have they found?” Even
better: “Why hasn’t anyone studied?” In this assignment you will write a mock
research proposal to answer a sociological question that is important to you.
The proposal will be written in prose (not a list of answers or bullet points).
Keep in mind that sociology is both a theoretical and an empirical endeavor.
Make both sides relevant to your study.

1) State the research question; be sure to specify why it is important or of
sociological interest
2) Synthesize background literature on this topic. Use at least 5 scholarly
sources and be sure that you are providing a synthesis and not a summary.
3) Identify some existing data you might use to answer this question
4) Propose a new study (yours!) to answer the research question featured here.
What kinds of methods would you employ? Why these methods and not others?
Identify strengths and weaknesses. Would you collect your own data – or are
existing data sufficient for answering your question?

Include proper citations (minimum of 5; they must be scholarly)
Use 12 point Times New Roman font. 1 inch margins.
72228948 [?]Bad Money [?]Order Type: Book Report [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $4.51 [?] Number of pages: 3 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 22:14 [?] Total: $13.53 [?] Number of sources: 1 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 3 days 7 hours 12 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
1) Please using the book: BAB MONEY by KENVIN PHILIPS
2) As you read the book, make a list of the big ideas you find (8 to 10 ideas), this
list would really be a list of Headings( for the ideas); after this.
3) Discuss the pros & cons for each idea listed. For some ideas you can have only
cons & for some other only pros, and for some both... For each ideas this
discussion could be as little as 3 lines...
4) Do not need to have `Introduction` and `Conclusion.` 71228850 [?]The Horror of It All” Essay [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.5 [?] Number of pages: 1 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 17:05 [?] Total: $4.5 [?] Number of sources: 1 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 3 days 2 hours 3 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
Read Julie Daggett’s speech (481-482) and explain (in an essay in the APA
format) how it fulfills Lucas’ expectations of a good “After-Dinner Speech”
Submit or post the essay as directed. 71228546 [?]Poetry Essay [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.7 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 22:05 [?] Total: $18.8 [?] Number of sources: 1 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 3 days 7 hours 3 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
Final AssignmentPlath-Hughes Poetry Study
Read the poems “Daddy” and “Tulips” by Sylvia Plath and view the film Sylvia,
Your assignment for this project is to read 2-3 more poems by Sylvia Plath and
also 2-3 poems written by her husband, poet Ted Hughes. Once you’ve studied
this selection of poems, research scholarly work on them.
You will write a 5-6 page essay, in which you incorporate your research findings
and your own literary analysis. The essay must be in MLA format and must
include a Works Cited page. Make sure you accurately cite excerpts of poetry, as
you will need to include specific examples from the various texts you’ve
studied. Your essay, like all academic essays, must have a thesis that brings
the entire investigation together. For example, you might assert that much of
the poetry of Hughes and Plath is a reflection of their tumultuous love affair.
As such, you would research what biographers have said about the famed
couple, what literary critics have said about the content of/symbolism in their
poetry, and also study the poems themselves for your own deeper
The due date for this assignment and the discussion dates will be noted on the
This assignment is worth 20% of your grade. The rubric for this project is as
follows:_______/25 points Solid understanding and analysis of at least 6 poems by
Hughes and Plath (you may use “Daddy” and “Tulips” in addition to the others
you read)_______/35 points Well-written and documented essay_______/25 points Quality research conducted and adequately incorporated
into essay_______/15 points 2 thoughtful, insightful, and unique comments posted on
discussion boardTotal:______/100 points
******** Also read The Bell Jar, a novel by Sylvia Plath that many critics
consider autobiographical. This would be worth an extra 10 points.
If you choose to read The Bell Jar and incorporate it into your Plath-Hughes
essay to earn the extra points, you will need to relate the protagonist to Plath
(since most critics believe this to be at least partially autobiographical). Using
evidence from the novel (specific episodes/excerpts), youll need to demonstrate
that youve read it and can relate it to the author and her life and her poetry.
Do not summarize the plot or discuss the novel in general terms, as you could
get very generalized info on the plot from the Internet. Be creative in how you
choose to incorporate it. The point is that this should serve as yet another of
Plaths texts that will offer insight into her psyche. Treat it as such and you will
be able to easily work it into your essay.
This is worth up to 10 points to be added to your essay. Ive never had anyone
earn all 10 points, but several have come close. Most students earn 3-5 points,
which is still significant. The main reason for this is because most students
focus on summarizing the plot to show me they read the book. However, as I
mentioned before, a plot summary is easy to find and doesnt actually prove
that you read the book. 71228509 [?]Decision Making Case Study Analysis [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.3 [?] Number of pages: 3 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 21:01 [?] Total: $12.9 [?] Number of sources: 3 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 3 days 5 hours 58 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
Review the Case Study entitled “Rational Sentencing: Whose Rationality.” In
an APA formatted 700-1,050 analysis, answer the three questions that follow
the Case Study. Elaborate upon your answers and explain your reasoning. (Use
at least 3 academic sources, excluding your weekly readings.)
Mary had worked as a probation officer for a little over a year. She had a degree
in criminology and criminal justice and was excited about working in
probation. After a few weeks of un-programmed on-the-job training, she was
pleased that much of her university coursework had given her some basis for
the procedural aspect of the work. Mary especially felt that her college
instructor, an exprobation officer, had given her a fairly good grasp of the
presentence investigation process (PSI). As a result, she was assigned her own
PSI work more quickly than most novices. However, a novice she was, and she
hadnt been given many complex or perplexing cases.
Her last PSI assignment had been a bit more complex than most. She had been
assigned a PSI on a sex offender, specifically statutory rape. A 22-year-old male
had a month-long sexual relationship with a 16-year-old girl. When her parents
discovered the relationship, they filed charges over the objections of the girl.
The defendant had an earlier arrest for disorderly conduct as a result of a fight
in a local tavern and a number of speeding tickets; he had worked steadily but
had moved from job to job as an auto mechanic. He also admitted to being a
recovering drug and alcohol addict. Mary verified his attendance in recovery
treatment, and tests showed that he was drug and alcohol free. The girl
apparently had a difficult relationship with her parents, had dropped out of
school, and was a drug and alcohol abuser. She convinced Mary during the PSI
process that she was attempting to recover from her addictions and the
defendant was the only significant person in her life who was supporting her
attempt to recover. The girl also admitted to being sexually active and did not
view her relationship with a 22-year-old male as anyones business.
Mary collected a great deal of additional information and considered her
recommendation. She was in favor of granting the defendant probation on the
condition he avoid contact with the 16-year-old. Mary also applied a statistical
risk prediction model, which helped her conclude the defendant would not be a
likely candidate for recidivism. She recommended probation with the
condition the defendant would not have any contact with the girl until she
turned 18 and presented her recommendation to her supervisor Brian.
Immediately Brian said, “Mary, I dont like your recommendation. We dont like
to put sex offenders on probation.”
“This is technically a sex offense,” Mary answered, “but I dont see any evidence
of the defendant digressing and getting involved with young girls as a pattern.
I think he and the girls mutual neuroses met, which resulted in their
relationship. I think it had more to do with the similar needs and personality
disorder they both share.”
“Cool,” said Brian. “What if he meets a 14-year-old whos a loser like him?”
“Look, Brian, I did a risk prediction on him, and I really dont believe there is
much of a chance of this repeating itself,” Mary answered. “If he keeps his
interest in the victim, she will be an adult in about eighteen months and the
case is closed.”
Brian closed the file and looked at her. “Mary, let me be honest with you. A
month before you got here, we took a chance and put a child molester on
probation. We did that because his parents had a team of lawyers and
psychologists testify that he would be OK, and I suspect there were some social
links between the prosecutor, the judge, and the family of the creep. The
family of the victim seemed charitable and felt the scumbag would benefit
from psychiatric guidance. They didnt want to harm this assholes life, the
humiliation of being arrested was enough punishment you know all the
arguments. Well, the judge went against our unwritten policy and put him on
probation. Guess what? He stocked his glove compartment back up with candy
and was cruising the local elementary school a month after he was on
probation. He snatched some kid into his car and fortunately was caught.
Unfortunately, the press got hold of the whole thing, and we took the heat.”But its not rational to compare that case with this one,” Mary protested. “Its
apples and oranges.”
“Sure, at its essence. But symbolically its a sex offense, and the press and all of
the holier-than-thou groups arewaiting for us to put a sex offender on
probation. Believe me, the judge will not put this guy back on the street.
Consider him a burnt offering to the public for our last mistake.”Thats ugly,” Mary declared. “I cant let this guy go to prison to satisfy some base
political and vindictive needs of the public. The judge is supposed to have the
courage to dispense justice, not satisfy the rabble.”“Easy, Mary, that wont solve anything,” Brian smiled. “Work out a compromise.
Why dont you recommend jail time followed by some form of computer
monitoring with probation?”Well, this disappoints me. But I guess youre saying if I recommend probation,
he is going to prison.”
Brian stood up. The meeting was over. “Thats right. Youre catching on now.”
Question 1: What role should political concerns have in decision making? In the
case study, should rational guidelines have more importance in the decision
than potential political concerns?
Question 2: What cultural aspects of the organizations decision making did
Mary learn through this experience? In addition, what limitations are present
within “rational” models of decision making when they are implemented
within an organizations culture?
Question 3: In this case study could cultural and political concerns be made
part of the formal decision making processes? Can these cultural and political
concerns be kept out of decision making? Can prediction models address these
concerns? 72228366 [?]poes use of diction in literary works [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $5.3 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 15:11 [?] Total: $21.2 [?] Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 3 days 9 minutes Status: Order is available
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have to have 5 sources, 3 of which are from hardcopy books,magazines, or
articles, and 2 internet sources (No wikipedia or any other encyclopedia). One
of the sources will have to be `sixth edition Literature reading, reacting, and
writing` by Kriszner & Mandell. I will need the list of sources by Nov 31, and the
paper by dec 3. Also I have to bring a hard copy of the book sources into class on
Dec 1st so the sources will have to be ones that can be checked out from a
library. The paper must include paraphrases;as well as, quotes. all must be
cited in paper in MLA format. Thanks
The Paper must shows how Poes use of diction adds to the value of his
literature. Including the Conqueror Worm, Tell-Tale Heart, and the HAunted
Palace, and any other work that represents this. Thanks. 77228781 [?]`Hamlet` Character Analysis Paper [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.7 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 11:25 [?] Total: $23.5 [?] Number of sources: 3 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 2 days 20 hours 23 minutes Status: Order is available
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1400 (min) – 1700 (max) words
Choose ONE of the following characters from Shakespeare’s Hamlet: Prince of
Denmark as the focus of your character analysis paper: Gertrude, Claudius,
Ophelia, Polonius or Laertes. (Remember that Hamlet is probably too complex
to write about in a paper of this length; Horatio, may not provide enough to
work with.)
For this paper, you will look at TWO critical opinions of your character and will
respond to the critics/scholars in the course of making your argument about
the character. Your thesis and topic sentences [main claims] will be your own
ideas; you will then bring in other critical opinions in the course of elaborating
on your points. Make sure you are clear about what you agree or disagree with
and why. Do not simply say “I agree” or “I disagree” – instead explain and
support your position, and take the idea into more depth.
These critical opinions must be from a scholarly source. No Wikipedia, no
general interest web sites, no Sparknotes, etc.
Your best resources for this will likely come from the SMC Database on
Literature. Good databases include JSTOR, Magill, and Academic Search
Premier. Here are a few specialty publications (via the SMC Databases) that
might be especially fruitful for you:
• The Shakespeare Quarterly –
• Studies in English Literature –
• The Yearbook of English Studies –
(You certainly are not limited to these. But remember your sources must be
academic and scholarly in nature.)
REMEMBER: All outside sources must be properly cited both in-text
(parenthetical citation) and in a Works Cited page using proper MLA
formatting. Even paraphrases must be cited. If you are still unclear on
citation, refer to Ch. 7 of your textbook and/or see me with specific questions.
Also remember to include your textbook as a source in your Works Cited, since
this is your text for the play (with, of course, Shakespeare as the author, etc.)
In-text citations for excerpts from the play itself will be formatted using the
act, scene and line numbers in arabic numerals – for example: (4.2.148-49) to
denote Act IV, Scene 2, Lines 148-9. (There are other methods, such as those
using Roman numerals, but Diana Hacker recommends this as the proper MLA
Also remember that play titles are treated like books in that they are either
underlined or italicized (no quote marks): e.g. Hamlet by William Shakespeare
Elements of your paper:• Your paper will be based on a central insight (your THESIS) that you have
about the character. Remember, your thesis should be: focused, specific,
arguable, and assert one main idea.
• The paper will then be organized using supporting claims (your TOPIC
SENTENCES) that relate to the thesis.
• These claims will be supported and illustrated by EVIDENCE from the text and
your critical sources, properly cited.
• You will take the ideas into further depth through your ELABORATION on
each point: make clear connections among your ideas and discuss each idea in
depth, while maintaining your focus (not going off-topic).
• Your Introduction should aim to establish your thesis; your Conclusion
should summarize and reflect on your central insight.
• Just as you avoided plot summary in your Story Analysis paper, be sure to
avoid simply providing a generalized summary of scenes or the character
overall. Instead, keep your paper focused on a specific aspect of the character in
a way that supports your central, unifying thesis.
P.S. try to not to use too difficult vocabulary and do not use too complicated
sentences. 71225595 [?]Fashion Designers and their work [?]Order Type: Essay [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $5.3 [?] Number of pages: 4 (Double Spaced) [?]
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The project is to choose one or more designers from a given list. I would like
menswear collections of the following designers to be looked at; Vivienne
Westwood, Jil Sander, John Galliano, and John Richmond. Especially look into
John Gallianos recent 2009 S/S menswear collection which has a punk theme.
The collection can be viewed at
y/johngalliano/and also Westwoods punk inspirations too. The other two designers can be discussed intems of prejudice, or traditional
meswear concepts. Collection photos can be viewed at essay has to be linked to my design coursework and the theme is punk and
prejudice (prejudice meaning traditional tailored clothes)
The essay brief is as follows:You will need to write an academic essay of 1000 words based on the anaysis of a
selection of designers that you have selected.
`It is worth emphasising that there is no single or correct answer to the
question, What does an image mean? or What is this ad saying?. Since there is
no law which can guarantee that things will have one, true meaning, or that
the meaning wont change over time, work in this area is bound to be
interpretative--a debate between, not who is right and who is wrong, but
between equally plausible, though sometimes competing and contested,
meanings and interpretations` (Hall, S. 1997 Represntaton: Cultural
Representation and Signfying Practices. Milton Keynes: Open University Press,
Select at lest four designers relevant to your studies, research and analyse
these thoroughly, using an approriate methodology. Remember to include
visual material to illustrate your discussion.
Your esay should contain your findings from the research plus your own
constructive opinions on te designers wors.
Include a bibliography (Harvard style): research sorces should include; books,
articles (journals), and the web, etc.
Guidance on content:Name and description of the designer/s, nationality, location, major awards,
contributon to the fashion industry, concepts used, inspirations. Opinion,
discussion and critical appraisal of the designers work. 71228690 [?]Arguments about Lynching [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $5.12 [?] Number of pages: 8 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 4:08 [?] Total: $40.96 [?] Number of sources: 7 [?] Style: MLA [?] Urgency: 4 days Time remaining: 2 days 12 hours 51 minutes Status: Order is available
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My paper has to have an argument about lynching and a good title.I like the idea of focusing on James Weldon Johnson and bringing in other
authors to highlight the more innovative aspects of his literary approaches to
the problems of representing--and combating--lynching. Of course, Ill want you
to spell out more specifically what these innovative aspects WERE! Black
authors used their publications to utter a resounding YES, but chose many
different strategies in which to do so. So what were Johnsons main strategies,
and why? Please support all arguments.
Here is an example paper:
Substitution and Violence in My Ántonia
The narrative of My Ántonia is punctuated by the recurring theme of violence.
From the grisly suicide of Mr. Shimerda to the shocking homicide/suicide of the
Cutters, Willa Cather uses her novel to explore the scope of violence possible in
the lives of average people. Three of the situations, however, stand apart for
the particular emphasis Cather places on substitution. The relationship of Jim
and Ántonia is reaffirmed, in part, through this triple sequence of transferred
violence that Cather weaves within the plot of the novel.Pavel’s gruesome tale of throwing a bridal couple to their deaths defines the
relationship between Jim and Ántonia in the early part of the novel. Their
first acquaintanceship develops on the theme of learning to understand each
other. Ántonia longs to communicate. Jim describes her eyes as “fairly blazing
with things she could not say” (17). They spend a friendly afternoon trying to
rectify that situation. “While we snuggled down there out of the wind she
learned a score of words” (18). In this manner, Jim and his family first
facilitate Ántonia’s learning of English. As Ántonia translates Pavel’s tale, she
reciprocates this favor.The climax of Pavel’s story is characterized by replacement—this turn, rather
than shocking Jim and Ántonia, excites them and provides a basis by which
their relationship deepens. Faced with the possibility of being eaten alive,
Pavel describes making the terrible choice of allowing a newlywed couple to die
so that he and Peter may live. He pays the price in exile from his village and
eventually his country. Despite the grim reality of the story, Jim and Ántonia
are curiously attracted to it, as though its purpose is to give them “a painful
and peculiar pleasure” (45). In fact, they perceive the story as ongoing. Jim
comments that before falling asleep, he “often found [him]self in a sledge
drawn by three horses, dashing through a country that looked something like
Nebraska and something like Virginia” (45). Jim associates the story with his
own life, but his knowledge of it and connection to it is defined alongside his
relationship with Ántonia. The question is whether Jim will sacrifice someone
for his own well-being, and whether Ántonia is playing the role of
co-conspirator, like Peter, or victim.As Jim and Ántonia’s relationship changes, she tells a first-hand account of a
tramp who takes Ole’s place working a farming machine and then kills himself
on the equipment. Unlike the earlier story, this tale is Ántonia’s personal
experience and reflects the recent changes in her life. The effects of her move
are again first evident in language; after moving into town, “Tony learned
English so quickly that by the time school began she could speak as well as any
of us” (112). Her ability merely to articulate the story of the tramp is an
accomplishment and a delight for Jim. In a line that ties back to Ántonia’s
“flashing eyes” early in the story, Jim comments that, “Everything [Ántonia]
said seemed to come from her heart” (129). Because the language barrier has
eased between them and Ántonia has joined Jim in living in the town, their
relationship takes on a further closeness.Like the tramp, Ántonia is now in an environment very much unlike her
family’s farm and worlds away from Bohemia, where she was born. The tramp
verbalizes a desire that Ántonia must also have felt when he exclaims: “‘My
God! […] So it’s Norwegians now, is it? I thought this was Americy’” (130). This is
the declaration of a person thrust into unusual circumstances who longs for
what is both familiar and safe. The poem found on the tramp’s body confirms
this sentiment. “The Old Oaken Bucket,” by Samuel Woodworth, begins with
“How dear to this heart are the scenes of my childhood / When fond recollection
presents them to view!” Later in the poem, the narrator laments, “And now,
far removed from the loved habitation, / The tear of regret will intrusively
swell.” Ántonia does not seem to regret her change of lifestyle, but her delight
in each new opportunity eventually leads to problems when she cannot stay at
the Harling’s while going to the dances she loves. Jim’s opinion of her remains
generally high, and they continue to enjoy each other’s company.Despite how close Jim and Ántonia become, they never see each other as more
than friends, and a third act of substituted violence drives a wedge between
them. Ántonia takes a job with the Cutters; the house is left in her care as they
take a trip to Omaha, but Mr. Cutter acts so strangely before leaving that it
frightens her. She takes her concerns to the Burdens, and Jim is easily
persuaded to stay in the house in her stead. As Jim words it, “Tony looked so
troubled that I consented to try this arrangement” (183). This is a description
of their relationship; Jim and Ántonia feel so comfortable with each other that
he is willing to do a favor to put her at ease. Unfortunately, Mr. Cutter returns
to take advantage of Ántonia and beats Jim severely instead. Though not as
horrific an act of violence as others described in the story, this incident is the
first that directly impacts Jim—he not only witnesses it, but suffers it
personally.Regrettably, this beating has a strong and negative impact on Jim’s
relationship to Ántonia. Jim isolates himself in his room after the beating,
and refuses to see anyone but his Grandmother. Of Ántonia, he explains: “I felt
that I never wanted to see her again. I hated her almost as much as I hated
Cutter. She had let me in for all this disgustingness” (185). The narrative
breaks immediately after Jim finishes describing exactly what happened
regarding Mr. and Mrs. Cutter. His next mention of Ántonia is from a point
some years later, and even here he thinks of her “bitterly” (215). The beating
and Jim’s reaction to it foreshadow a vague estrangement which haunts their
relationship for twenty years. Although they make amends and end up part
with friendship and good intentions, Jim comments that “life intervened,” and
he found he could not return to see Ántonia (235). He even travels past
Nebraska, but he “kept putting [a visit] off until the next trip” (235). This
reluctance to see Ántonia has nothing to do with the beating he took for her
and his temporary hatred of her afterward, but the beating represents a
marked turn. Jim-the-boy never hesitated to visit Ántonia wherever she lived,
but Jim-the-man falters, and the beating lies in between these two points.When Jim finally comes to see Ántonia, a woman with a husband, many
children, and a successful farm, the tension that kept him away for twenty
years evaporates. He finds her essentially unchanged, “battered but not
diminished” (238). The splendor of their relationship emerges, that they can
take up exactly where they left off without pause. Jim, enamored of her
children, offers to take some of them on a trip, and exults to himself that
“There were enough Cuzaks to play with for a long while yet” (265). The
sequence of their relationship, echoed in the three stories of violence and
broken in the last, is made whole again. Cather leaves open the question of
whether Jim keeps his promises and their relationship continues, but she
makes it clear that the possibility remains. Even should Jim disappear for
another twenty years, it seems likely that Ántonia will greet him as warmly
on the day he returns as she does throughout the novel. Their bond is
Works CitedCather, Willa. My Ántonia. Barnes & Noble: New York, 1994.
“Samuel Woodworth’s poem: The Old Oaken Bucket.” ReadBooksOnline.Net., 2003-2004. Accessed Feb 19,
LIT 3041-45Dr. Bart WellingApril 25, 2005Another example paper
“I Don’t”: Reluctant Wives and Liberated Women in Chopin’s The Awakening and Hardy’s Jude the Obscure
The Colonel was perhaps unaware that he had coerced his own wife into her
grave.Kate Chopin, 1899.
Hey Jude, don’t let me down. You have found her, now go and get her.The Beatles, 1968
NICE EPIGRAPH A close reading of Kate Chopin’s novel The Awakening after having read
Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure led me to question whether Chopin herself
had read Jude. The works paint a strikingly similar portrait of the institution
of marriage and its futility. Chopin’s novel, widely viewed as a feminist work,
was published in 1899, three years after British writer Thomas Hardy’s last
novel, Jude the Obscure. There are a number of parallels, character-wise and
plot-wise, in these two works. Edna Pontellier is similar to Hardy’s Sue
Bridehead. Edna’s husband, Léonce, is a sort of mirror of Hardy’s Richard
Phillotson. As far as plot, both stories involve, among other things, a wife who
chooses to live apart from her husband. Also in both works appear characters
attempting to dissuade the husband figures from allowing their wives liberty –
in The Awakening, it is the Colonel, and in Jude it is Gillingham. These
similarities at first prompt the reader who is familiar with both texts to
suspect that Chopin is in a sense copying Hardy’s sentiment and themes. But a
closer look at how these two novels end, as well as the two wives’ motivations
for leaving, reveals that Chopin, who (IT TURNS OUT) had indeed read Hardy’s
novel, recast his portrayal of marriage (or more specifically, wifehood) and
created a much more liberated female protagonist than Hardy’s Sue
Bridehead. BEAUTIFUL Comparing the two Victorian-era novels in this way
leads to a much better understanding of Edna’s actions and how they would
have been construed by a late nineteenth-century audience than merely
analyzing Chopin’s text alone does. ONE OF THE BEST MAIN CLAIMS I’VE EVER
GOTTEN Scholars have noted that Chopin’s work is similar to Hardy’s, but very little
in-depth analysis of these two works’ comparative attitudes towards wifehood
has been done. GREAT Perhaps this is due to the fact that Hardy was a British
writer and Chopin an American. It is then THUS necessary to examine criticism
of these works separately and then compare. Since Chopin’s work appears after
Hardy’s, and Chopin certainly read Hardy’s work, CITE AUTHORITY HERE it is
more useful to use Hardy’s text as insight into Chopin’s than the other way
around. Hardy’s novel, with its non-traditional female characters, most
importantly Sue Bridehead, was regarded in its time as a “‘New Woman’ Novel.”
Hardy himself studied and agreed with John Stuart Mill’s proto-feminist work
On Liberty and had Sue quote it to Jude at one point in the novel. After
publication of Jude the Obscure, as the movement for female liberty grew,
Hardy himself grew dissatisfied with his character Sue. He became
disappointed with “the feebleness of [his] drawing of her,” he noted in a letter,
suggesting that if he could have, he would have liked to have written Sue as a
stronger woman. One letter of Hardy’s provides more insight into his attitudes
on women’s suffrage:I feel by no means sure that the majority of those who clamour for it [suffrage]
realize what it may bring in its train …. I refer to such results as the probable
break-up of the present marriage system, the present social rules of other
sorts, religious codes, legal arrangements on property, &c (through men’s self
protective countermoves). I do not myself consider that this would necessarily
be a bad thing (I should not have written Jude the Obscure if I did)….
Hardy saw his work, then, as a revelation to British readers interested in
suffrage. As was seen by “AS CAN BE SEEN IN” Hardy’s quote about Sue’s feebleness,
several years after publication of Jude, attitudes toward liberty for women
(specifically, liberty from oppressive social structures like contractual
marriages or marriages of convenience) were rapidly changing. But an
analysis of responses to Kate Chopin’s novel reveals that they were not
completely transformed. VERY NICE The majority of contemporary reviews
dismissed Edna as a selfish wife and mother, who “does not appreciate her good
husband.” Some, though, understood and praised her work and saw it as an
important step forward. One recognized the theme of the novel, the
“immorality of a marriage of convenience.” “The Awakening is not for the
young person,” another critic said, “not because the young person would be
harmed by reading it, but because the young person wouldn’t understand it.”
Critics today hail the novel as an important feminist text, in which Edna shows
other women how to find their inner selves and break free from oppressive
social conventions. Textual analysis of Chopin’s references to the convention of
marriage confirms this view, but comparison with Hardy’s slightly earlier
work demonstrates that the process of female liberation is more slow [a process
REP.].It is important to first establish the similarities and continuities between
Chopin’s and Hardy’s works before analyzing their differences and what results
from those differences. GOOD While there are several differences in the overall
narratives, and Hardy’s novel takes place over a much longer time period than
Chopin’s, the two works are notably similar in plot. Both books involve
marriages that were made without passion or romantic love, and maintained
because of “what people would say” if they were not. In fact, the situation in
which Mr. Pontellier writes a letter “of unqualified disapproval,” asking her to
consider above all else what people would say, is mirrored PREFIGURED in Jude
the Obscure. Phillotson sends notes to Sue asking her to reconsider leaving
him, writing, “you would lose everybody’s respect and regard, and so should I.”
In both situations, the wife does not seek a divorce, but only what would be
considered today an “open marriage.” The reason she does this is because she is
trapped in a marriage without passion. In The Awakening, Edna merely “grew
fond of her husband, realizing with some unaccountable satisfaction that no
trace of passion or excessive and fictitious warmth colored her affection,
thereby threatening its dissolution.” Sue similarly married her former tutor
because she had agreed to become engaged to him, for convenience’s sake.
There was no sexual or romantic passion at all on Sue’s side, although like AS
with the Pontelliers, the husband was devoted enough. Sue tells Phillotson, “for
a man and woman to live on intimate terms when one feels as I do is adultery,
in any circumstances, however legal.” Sue was PRESENT TENSE in love with
another man, Jude Fawley. Similarly, Edna was DITTO in love with Robert.In both books there is strong social pressure to maintain respectable
marriages, even unhappy ones. In fact, marriages were seemingly destined for,
and recognizable by, unhappiness. This is obvious in Hardy’s work in many
places, including this passage:The landlord of the lodging, who had heard that they [Jude and his first wife
Arabella] were a queer couple, had doubted if they were married at all,
especially as he had seen Arabella kiss Jude one evening when she had taken a
little cordial !!!!; and he was about to give them notice to quit, till by chance
overhearing her one night haranguing Jude in rattling terms, and ultimately
flinging a shoe at his head, he recognized the note of genuine wedlock; and
concluding that they must be respectable, said no more.
There is a strikingly similar episode in Chopin’s work, in which Edna and some
others discuss a couple who are obviously and openly very much in love:“Are those two married over there – leaning on each other?”“Of course not,” laughed Robert.“Of course not,” echoed Mariequita, with a serious, confirmatory bob of the
This social pressure acts in both books as a springboard for the female
protagonist’s self-liberation. Both are trapped in an institution that has been
acknowledged to be devoid of romance or even love. Words like “fondness” and
“liking” are used between husbands and wives, and never words like “love” or
“passion.” EXCELLENT At one point in Chopin’s novel, there is a passage that
can certainly be read as a direct nod to Jude the Obscure. It comes when Robert
is confessing his passion for Edna after his return from Mexico. He says he had
been dreaming of “wild, impossible things” and “recalling men who had set
their wives free.” “We have heard of such things,” he adds. Edna responds, “Yes,
we have heard of such things.” In Hardy’s work, it is phrased in exactly those
words. Sue exclaims, “Why can’t we agree to free each other?” If the “we” from
Robert’s statement means “the readers,” then he is right. Hardy’s novels were
popular on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. BRILLIANT MECH. Another similarity to be found between these two works is the presence
of a character that tries to dissuade the husband figure from allowing his wife
to leave. There are many characters in Hardy’s novel that speak up against
marriage in general, but the character of Phillotson’s friend and colleague
Gillingham is the most prominent. Gillingham calls Sue a “hussy” and holds
several conversations with Phillotson trying to convince him that Sue’s place
was at his side. He is unsuccessful in the utmost, since Phillotson has convinced
himself, as Hardy is trying to convince his readers, that his ultimate duty is to
secure his wife’s happiness, even if that happiness lies with another man.
Phillotson’s “mild serenity at the sense that he was doing his duty by a woman
who was at his mercy almost overpowered his grief at relinquishing her.”
Gillingham speaks almost a Shakespearean aside to himself as he walks home:
“I think she ought to be smacked, and brought to her senses – that’s what I
think!” This aside is Shakespearean because it foreshadows what actually
happened – although it was Sue’s own guilt and sense of entrapment in social
conventions that smacked her, and not Phillotson. INTRIGUING In The
Awakening, the Gillingham character is filled by the Colonel, Edna’s father.
Significantly, the Colonel is not portrayed as wise and friendly, as Gillingham
is, nor is his advice voluntarily sought, since he has problems of his own in the
marital sphere. After the Colonel tells Léonce that coercion and authority were
the only ways to manage a wife, Chopin WELL, THE NARRATOR humorously
observes that the Colonel “perhaps was unaware that he had coerced his own
wife into her grave.” Léonce’s situation is a bit more complex than Phillotson’s
as well because Léonce also has a friend, Dr. Mandalet, SP. urging him to humor
Edna and let her do as she liked. Léonce essentially has a devil on one shoulder
and an angel on the other.Despite plot similarities, there is an important difference in the situations of
Sue and Edna, one which makes Edna the stronger woman, and The Awakening
the more strongly feminist work: Edna continues with her plan and never
returns to her home life with her husband and children. Sue does not. WELL,
ultimately defeated by society’s disapproval of her living with Jude, even after
she has secured a legal divorce and married Jude. She regards herself as still
married to Phillotson – “I belong to him. I sacramentally joined myself to him
for life. Nothing can alter it!” she tells Jude. Following her abandonment of
Jude and return to Phillotson, little is heard from her. Toward the end of the
novel, Hardy gives us news of Sue from the mouths of gossips – when asked how
Sue was looking, one says, “Tired and miserable, poor heart. Years and years
older than when you saw her last.” Sue has lost her youth and sparkle because
she has given in to convention, and after she does, Jude dies. Most importantly,
SHE has given in to her sexual obligations to her husband, Phillotson. The
gossips go on to say the last lines of the novel: She may swear that [she’s found peace with Phillotson] on her knees to the holy
cross upon her necklace till she’s hoarse, but it won’t be true! … She’s never
found peace since she left his [Jude’s] arms, and never will again till she’s as he
is now!
The lyrics of the John Lennon and Paul McCartney song “Hey Jude,” although
presumably not written to address the situation of Jude Fawley, illustrate this
difference clearly – Jude is encouraged in the song to “go out and get her.”
GREAT In Hardy’s novel, Sue is troubled by always being possessed by someone.
Her heart and passion belong to Jude, but her life legally belongs to Phillotson,
whom she has married in the church. The song fits the novel. Edna Pontellier,
however, makes up her mind “never again to belong to anyone but herself,”
and believes that she cannot be “gone out and gotten” by anyone, even Robert.
This is even more clearly demonstrated in her statement to Robert, Chopin’s
Jude figure: “I give myself where I choose. If he [Mr. Pontellier] were to say,
‘Here, Robert, take her and be happy, she is yours,’ I should laugh at you both.’”
So Hardy’s novel, which predates Chopin’s by three years, is a sort of
proto-feminist novel if Chopin’s is a feminist one. These texts ideally should be
taught together in order to bring the reader to an understanding of how
feminism in literature developed. Both seek to comment on the arbitrary and
futile nature of marriage, but Sue Bridehead is ultimately trapped, while Edna
Pontellier breaks free. Although in the end Edna ends her own life, she is in
charge until the end, knowing that she has gone too far out to be able to swim
back. Sue has been defeated, never having set out against the waves. ELEGANT

Here are some more detailed examples of the kinds of problems I would like to
see you tackle for the research paper, along with sources that would be useful
in solving them.
1. Environmental ethics in Elizabeth Bishop’s “The Fish.” After reading what
different commentators have to say about “The Fish” on Cary Nelson’s fabulous
Modern American Poetry Site (MAPS) at
I’m still wondering why, exactly, the speaker lets the fish go, and what the
poem can tell us about how we perceive and represent animals (and the
environment generally), along with how these perceptions and
representations can shape our behavior towards it/them. Stephen Cushman (a
brilliant and very friendly poet/critic at U.Va.) writes in his excerpt on MAPS
that the speaker achieves a kind of “imaginative identification” with the fish,
but I’m wondering if the relationship between speaker and fish (such as it is)
isn’t more ambiguous than that. After all, the fish never returns her stare
(assuming the speaker is female), and there’s no evidence that it shares her
exultant sense of “victory” at the end. As someone pointed out in class, it seems
quite ready to die. One thing is certain, though: the poem is extremely
interested in the problem of anthropomorphism—Ruskin’s famous “pathetic
fallacy”—and I’m thinking that on further inspection it may very well offer
new literary-ethical grounds for rethinking the human/animal divide, and
perhaps even for rethinking the ethics of catch-and-release fishing!
By the way, it turns out that one critic (Ronald E. McFarland) has identified the
fish as a large red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and if I had caught and
cleaned a grouper I would definitely bring my experience to bear on the
problem. Also, I would want to factor in what Bishop told her mentor, Marianne
Moore, about the poem—that it was “very bad and, if not like Robert Frost, perhaps like Ernest Hemingway!” It
would be well worth comparing Bishop’s “The Fish” with Moore’s “The Fish,”
particularly if you were to treat the former as a reworking of and literary
answer to the latter, and it would be equally worthwhile to compare the poem
to something like Frost’s “The Most of It” and Hemingway’s The Old Man and the
Sea. Doing a close reading of “The Fish” in which you were to explicate it, line by
line, would also be great, as long as you were to engage with what other critics
have said about Bishop’s speaker, themes, tone, allusions, rhythm, word choice,
sounds, images, figures of speech, and so on.
Another possibility:
2. A spatial/geographic reading of As I Lay Dying. From the very first line of the
book, Faulkner is obsessed with questions of “whereness”—where his characters
are relative to each other, which part of the region they’re from, how they
move across the landscape, where they locate their homes and communities,
where they’re buried in the end. He’s also fascinated with questions of
Southern identity, employing a sometimes shocking blend of not just
“standard” but “high literary” modernist English and
poor-Mississippi-hill-white vernacular. Using Faulkner’s hand-drawn 1936 map
for Absalom, Absalom! (and, of course, openly examining the temporal and
other problems occasioned by doing so) I might “map” the Bundrens’ circuitous
journey to Jefferson by way of exploring Faulkner’s interest in
embodiment-in-landscape, the fluidity of regional identity, and how (southern
U.S.) humans forge and perceive their connections to a place.
Potentially useful sources, as found on the Library’s “Language & Literature
Databases” site at
(and then the MLA Directory of Periodicals—Infotrac):
Baldwin, Marc D. `Faulkners Cartographic Method: Producing the Land through
Cognitive Mapping.` The Faulkner Journal, 7:1-2 (1991 Fall-1992 Spring), pp.
193-214. [I have a copy of this if you would like to see it].
Gray, Richard. `Implacable and Brooding Image: William Faulkner and
Southern Landscape,` pp. 128-38. Dhaen, Theo (ed. and introd.); and Bertens,
Hans (ed. and introd.). Writing Nation and Writing Region in America.
Amsterdam, Netherlands: VU UP, 1996. iii, 271 pp. [I probably also have a copy
of this one somewhere]
Nicolaisen, Peter. `The Dark Land Talking the Voiceless Speech: Faulkner and
Native Soil.` Mississippi Quarterly: The Journal of Southern Culture, 45:3 (1992
Summer), pp. 253-76. [Full text available through Infotrac]
Tinker, Nathan P. `Geomancy: The Triangular Structures of Landscape and
History in As I Lay Dying.` Constructions, 8 (1993), pp. 37-55. [You would need to
request a copy of this one through Interlibrary Loan]
Other good sources: Faulkner in the University (invaluable records of
question-and-answer sessions held by Faulkner at the University of Virginia),
Faulkner’s introduction to Sanctuary (reprinted in Vintage edition of that
novel), Faulkner’s interview with Jean Stein in The Lion in the Garden, Joseph
Blotner and Richard Gray’s biographies of WF.
§ The Research Essay must be followed up with a completed “Pre-Submission
Checklist.” Give your proofreader plenty of time to go over your paper, and be
sure that your proofreader is a decent writer—the Checklist won’t do you any
good if your proofreader doesn’t know how to spell, etc.

Pre-Submission Checklist _I need my essay to have all this that is below
No matter what your skill level as a writer, your work will always benefit from
careful proofreading, sustained critical thought, and the input of other
readers who know what they’re talking about. Use this checklist before handing
in any formal written assignment at the university level (and maybe even
beyond). It will help you become a more conscientious reader and writer and
will help your paper project a more confident, intelligent, persuasive writerly
ethos, leading not just to higher grades but to more meaningful dialogue with
your readers. Every bit counts!
□ Proofreading: The paper has been proofread by someone you consider a strong
writer. Name and initials of
□ Revisions: You have factored in the proofreader’s suggestions to the best of
your abilities
□ Title: Your paper has a catchy, smart, memorable, and text- and
argument-driven title, along with a subtitle if needed (e.g., “Jim vs. Ántonia:
Will the Real Protagonist Please Stand Up?”)
□ Prefatory matter: The paper features your name, the professor’s name
(spelled correctly), the date, the class title, and any other necessary
information in one corner
□ Physical standards: The paper is double-spaced (no more, no less), stapled (if a
hard copy), and clean; you have saved the paper in at least two different
formats (e.g., hard disk and floppy disk) to avoid losing your work
□ Font: The paper is set in the font specified by the professor (12-point Times
New Roman in Mr. Welling’s case)
□ Permissions (if applicable): You have secured the instructor’s permission to
incorporate anything written in another class
□ Topic: The paper deals with a text/issue centrally related to the themes of the
class; if necessary, you’ve gotten the instructor’s approval to deal with an
outside text/issue
□ Problem: The introduction quickly presents an original, attention-grabbing
□ Costs/Benefits language: The Problem is articulated in language that stresses
the Costs of misunderstanding a given issue and/or the Benefits of
understanding it
□ Thesis: The introduction ends with a strong Thesis that a) sketches out a
likely Solution to the central Problem and b) provides adequate details as to
how the paper will solve it
□ Argument: The paper builds an argument based on strong claims rather
than mere facts or personal opinions
□ Claims: Your claims are 1) contestable, 2) supportable, 3) expandable, 4)
manageable, 5) text-centered, and 6) based on valid warrants
□ Body paragraphs: Each body paragraph begins and ends with valid claims
that refer back to the thesis in a logical rather than mechanical way
□ Audience: You have kept plot summary to a bare minimum, assuming that
your readers are intelligent and familiar with the text(s) at hand
□ Conclusion: Your conclusion doesn’t just summarize your argument; it
relates your argument to possible future dialogue on the central problem
□ Amount of evidence: Each claim is supported by at least one piece of evidence;
the more contestable your claims, the more evidence you’ll need
□ Quality of evidence: All evidence is cited correctly and passes the P.A.R.S.A.
□ Tense: You’ve used the present tense when talking about literary devices,
character motives and behavior, and most other literary topics
□ Poetry citations: You have used backslashes (/) to indicate line divisions in
poetry (e.g., “Your thighs are appletrees/ whose blossoms touch the sky./ Which
□ Prose citations: You have indented prose excerpts of three sentences or more
□ Analysis: Each piece of evidence is introduced, contextualized, and analyzed
□ Acknowledgment and Response: You have acknowledged and dealt openly and
fairly with evidence and/or other arguments that seem to undermine your
□ Secondary sources: You have consulted the required number of outside
critics, if any, and have given them due credit (no hint of plagiarism)
□ Clarity: Your prose is as straightforward, clear, and intelligent as you can
make it
□ Word choice: You have consulted a dictionary/thesaurus when trying out new
□ Grammar: You have corrected all run-ons, fragments, and other problems
□ Punctuation: You have used quotation marks (“”), colons (:), semicolons (;),
apostrophes (’), commas (,), and other punctuation marks correctly
□ Spelling: You have Spell-Checked the paper, but have also used your brain to
avoid homonym mix-ups (e.g., “their” for “there”) and other spelling errors
that the computer might have missed/introduced
Bibliography: The paper ends with a Works Cited section that scrupulously
adheres to the citation style advocated by your professor (MLA style in most
English classes)
The “A”-Level Essay
Note: It’s impossible to supply an exact template for the “A” paper precisely
because it depends so heavily on the individual talents of its author and the
unique problems posed by its subject, but in my experience “A” and “A+” papers
meet all or virtually all of the following criteria. They exceed the reader’s
expectations in terms of quality rather than quantity—one student’s “A” paper
could be two pages shorter than another student’s “C” paper—and frequently
achieve an “A” by taking on serious interpretive challenges, even risks. When
they break rules, however, they do so consciously and confidently, justifying
their innovative procedures at every step. They factor in my advice but are not
afraid to take issue with my arguments, and thus demonstrate that they take
the work of academic discourse seriously.
· Begins with a title that (a) grabs the reader’s attention (in a good way); (b)
encapsulates the author’s argument; and (c) provides the reader with a clear
sense of the text(s) that will be discussed and of the nature of the author’s
approach to it/them. Example: “Compromising the American Dream: Elements
of Self-Sacrifice in My Ántonia.”
· Creatively and diligently strives to fulfill the assignment. If the assignment
calls for a research paper, for instance, it brings in the required amount and
types of research in the process of constructing a meaningful original
argument. · As a rule of thumb, it does not follow the standard five-paragraph high school
model; rather, it follows a form appropriate to the given text, assignment, and
problems. It is more argument-based than informative (unless indicated
otherwise in the assignment) and demands a higher level of critical analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation than called for in high school papers.
· Quickly and effectively uses the “Stable Context” section of the introduction
(first few sentences) to outline relevant facts about the primary text and to
document germane aspects of the critical dialogue surrounding it. For
instance, authors can use the Stable Context to summarize what they see as the
most important features of the text, to introduce a prominent recent reading
of the text, to cover a number of diverse recent approaches, to show how critical
consensus on the book has changed through the years, to highlight the lack of
critical dialogue about the text, to talk about reviewers’ responses to the book
when it was first published, to discuss a standard edition of the text, or to
situate their argument within a discussion initiated by their classmates
and/or by the teacher. The Stable Context does not have to describe what seems
like a positive situation; rather, it focuses on the literary/critical status quo,
whether that status quo strikes the author as chaotic, unproblematic, or
otherwise. Examples: “Cormac McCarthy’s Blood Meridian goes farther than
practically any other novel towards ‘hacking…chopping… ripping [and] gutting’
(54) to death any illusions the reader might hold about the history of the
American West...”; “Since 1920, when one of William Faulkner’s first ‘critics’
mocked the would-be nature poet in the pages of a student newspaper at the
University of Mississippi, students of his work have struggled to find a
language capable of defining Faulkner’s complex and ever-changing vision of
the natural world…”· Swiftly disrupts the Stable Context with a clear and compelling Destabilizing
Element, a statement that raises the central interpretive problem(s) your
essay will try to solve. The possibilities are potentially infinite (see “Problems”
handout), but good Destabilizing Elements typically present a significant
challenge to the conventional ways of reading the text at hand. At the same
time, they do not take on too much work; an “A” paper’s Destabilizing Element
deals with a problem that is neither too insignificant nor too monstrous to be
dealt with satisfactorily within the scope of the assignment. Destabilizing
Elements are usually introduced with conjunctions like “but,” “however,”
“nevertheless,” and so forth. Example: Stable Context: “James Joyce’s Ulysses
invites, in fact demands, critical elucidation of its almost always tangled
correspondences to its Homeric precursors.” Destabilizing Element: “But from
its first publication a number of commentators sought to place the novel in a
context closer to home, historically as well as geographically. In particular,
such readers as Ezra Pound, Valery Larbaud, and Wyndham Lewis began early
on to note Joyce’s affinities to another expatriate Irish author of parodic and
semiautobiographical fictions: Laurence Sterne.” · Uses vivid Costs/Benefits language to advertise the intellectual costs of the
problem for readers who fail to understand it correctly, and, conversely, the
benefits your paper will confer on readers in helping them understand and
solve the problem. Example: Stable Context [from an essay about a collection of
books from William Faulkner’s personal library]: “…The standard source of
evidence on Faulkner’s reading for over thirty years, Joseph Blotner’s William
Faulkner’s Library: A Catalogue, at first confirmed the sense of
disappointment, the absence of new ‘finds’ or new insights.” Destabilizing
Element: “Within a very short time, however, both the limitations of Blotner’s
Catalogue and the surprising strengths of the new collection began to come to
light.” Costs/Benefits: “Questionable publication and autograph dates which
had been reprinted matter-of-factly in the Catalogue demanded reevaluation.
A sizeable number of inscriptions and signatures omitted in the Catalogue, or
mentioned but not transcribed, started to emerge. And then there were the
books not mentioned at all…” · Offers the hint of a strong solution to the central problem(s) in the form of a
Thesis that both (a) subtly and powerfully previews the paper’s argument by
presenting a set of interlocking claims and (b) supplies key details about how
the author will go about solving the problem(s), i.e., what kinds of evidence the
author will look at, what literary theory the author will apply to the text,
what editorial strategy the author will employ, and so on. Strong college-level
Theses often do not use a mechanical approach (e.g., “First, I will discuss
A…Then, B…Finally, C…”) to sketch out their argument, and frequently do use
the first person. Example: While [Robert] Pinsky’s [poem] “9/11” may seem
hypocritical or unethical, since it comes to us surrounded by the same kinds of
images it in fact attacks, the truth is otherwise. The poem places the media
frenzy surrounding September 11, 2001 in its appropriate (read: Hollywood)
contexts, equipping us with the healthy skepticism we need to turn off the
television and make our own sense of the attacks. By subverting the
hero-worshipping tone of the online issue of the Washington Post in which it
appears, I would argue, it in fact makes a strong argument for the relevance
and ethical functions of poetry in a time of war.”
Claims, Body Paragraphs
· Develops the argument sketched out in the thesis with body paragraphs that
begin and end with strong, original, non-mechanical, thesis-related claims. · The claims are Contestable, Supportable, Expandable, Manageable, Literary,
and derive from basic principles and values (“warrants”) that readers are
likely to find logically and ethically defensible (see “Literary Claims”
handout). · Assumes that the reader is an intelligent person familiar with the primary
text, and thus avoids simple plot summary (i.e., the recounting of details that
any intelligent reader would be able to grasp) at all costs.· Illustrates and supports each claim with at least one piece of Evidence,
whether paraphrased or cited directly from the book or one of the book’s critics.
Important Note: The amount of evidence required to support a claim depends
on the degree to which the author is trying to change the reader’s mind; strong
claims defeat themselves when they are not adequately defended with sound
· Consistently brings in evidence that qualifies as Precise, Accurate,
Representative, Sufficient, and Authoritative (see “P.A.R.S.A.” handout). · Analyzes each piece of evidence sufficiently; pays close attention, in
particular, to the primary text’s use of literary devices, and demonstrates a
strong understanding of the context of each quote.· Deals even-handedly and transparently with critics and pieces of evidence
from the text that appear to contradict the author’s argument.· Incorporates a diverse range of types of evidence and analysis.· Cites other critics correctly and gives them due credit when they have shaped
the author’s argument (no hint of plagiarism).
· Summarizes the argument in the first sentence or two, but doesn’t confine
itself to summary; situates the paper with respect to possible future
arguments the same way the introduction has situated the paper vis-à-vis past
arguments. Often ends on a memorable rhetorical high point or a potential
cost or benefit to be encountered in the future. Example: [From an essay about
a letter by William Faulkner about his recently deceased “mammy,” Caroline
Barr]: “If the depths of Mammy Callie’s influences on William Faulkner have
yet to be charted, neither has the full story been told about mammies in
general...What [Bishop Robert E. Jones, Faulkner’s correspondent] couldn’t
have known, but what the letter he inspired Faulkner to write helps us see
today, was how desperately the white child tried to say, not Mammy, but
Style and “Visual Rhetoric”
· Has been proofread by at least one friend and has been revised at least once
both to correct errors and to boost the quality of argument. · Conforms to the physical standards, citation standards, and grammar,
punctuation, and spelling standards outlined on the syllabus.· Avoids stock phrases like “Since the beginning of time,” “In conclusion,” and
other clichés. · Eschews “English Majorese” and any other kind of deliberate obscurity.
Phrases complex ideas as clearly, simply, and forcefully as possible. · Uses language creatively, even artfully, to achieve desired rhetorical effects. · Avoids unnecessary repetition.
Welling—Essay Grading Codes, Version 1
These codes were designed not just with clarity and speed in mind, but with the
goal of transforming what can often seem like busy work into the most
meaningful possible educational experience for you. At present the list is in
the earliest stages of development, but over time I hope to be able to illustrate
each point with several examples from actual student papers, accompanied by
brief tutorials that will walk students through the steps of producing more
effective claims, reasons, evidence, and so forth.
Here’s how the codes work at present. In the annotated copy of your essay I’ve
e-mailed you may notice, for instance, that I’ve typed the code “EV-5-a” after
the sentence “Sean Penn claims that Moby-Dick is the greatest novel ever
written.” Finding “EVIDENCE (EV)” and then entry “a” under section 5,
“Authoritative,” you learn that this code translates to the comment, “This
person is not an authority in literary matters, a fact that should be
acknowledged openly as you simultaneously justify quoting him/her.” This
type of code can only refer to one place in the essay, but other codes—especially
ones dealing with punctuation and citation styles—can apply to multiple
errors. Instead of marking each error individually, I use asterisks (*) after the
first instance of the mistake to indicate the rough frequency of repetitions of
the problem. If you see “ST-13*” after the first run-on sentence in the paper,
that means there are one or two other run-ons later in the paper that haven’t
been marked; two asterisks would indicate an additional one or two run-ons;
and three asterisks would indicate a problem of potentially vast proportions!
I have not attempted to assign point values to the different errors simply
because reading and writing are, in the end, such irreducibly subjective and
dynamic processes that the attempt to measure an essay against a fixed,
“objective” point scale would result in hopeless confusion for everyone
involved. Still, some points can be assigned and measured with absolute
certainty. Plagiarism of any kind dooms an essay to failure. The lack of
directly quoted evidence is almost as damning, as is the lack of an original
argument. If the paper is a good deal shorter than required, or does not
conform to the physical standards outlined on the syllabus, it can’t receive the
same grade as an essay that meets all of the requirements. In the handout
“Grading Standards” I’ve started to provide anatomies of “A,” “B,” and “C”
papers based on these codes, but here’s an extremely brief sketch of what
makes the difference between the grades: compelling presentation of problems;
strength and originality of claims; intelligent and ethical handling of
evidence; clarity of organization and prose; even-handed engagement with
alternative viewpoints; absence of distractions like typos and grammatical
1. A 12-point font should have been used2. This font is much larger than Times New Roman3. Always double-space4. No extra spaces between paragraphs, please5. The margins are excessively wide6. Don’t justify the right margin—leave ragged 7. Save a tree!—include your “Works Cited” at the bottom of the last page (no
penalty for this)
1. No title, a “My Paper”-variety title, or one that simply supplies the name of
the text under discussion2. This title should do more to encapsulate the argument of the essay3. This title could do more to grab the reader’s attention4. A subtitle would be useful here to clarify the nature of the essay5. A very short quote from the text would be useful here6. This title gives away too much of your argument7. This title risks unnecessarily offending the reader8. The tone or sound of this title needs some work
1. This paper does a good job of following the standard high school model but
does not meet college-level expectations for organization, argument, and/or
style2. This essay offers a good factual introduction to the text(s) but does not
present enough of an original argument3. This is more of a book review than an analytic essay4. This essay does not conform to the guidelines for a research paper
1. Stable Context
a. Your introduction could use more of a Stable Context b. This Stable Context lasts too long; it should be cut down so the reader
encounters the problem soonerc. Rather than using generalizations about the outside world for your Stable
Context (“Throughout history…”), try beginning right away with the text
you’re discussingd. It would be smart to address the work of a published critic heree. Prior thinking/research on the subject needs to be addressed more fully here
2. Destabilizing Condition
a. The introduction lacks a compelling Destabilizing Conditionb. This Destabilizing Condition could be phrased more dramaticallyc. This Destabilizing Condition could be rewritten to mesh more effectively
with its Stable Context
3. Costs/Benefits
a. Missing costs/benefitsb. Costs/benefits could be stressed more effectively using attention-getting
words like “key,” “crucial,” “surprising,” “drastic,” “grave,” and so onc. Costs/benefits should be rephrased to appeal more to your particular
4. Thesis
a. Thesis has problems as a claimb. Thesis should do more to encapsulate your argumentc. Thesis is not really provided until the conclusion of the paperd. Thesis should provide more details of your argumente. Thesis should offer a more adequate preview of the rest of the paperf. Thesis outlines the paper in a mechanical rather than logical fashiong. Thesis presents a solution to a different set of problems than those raised
earlier in the introductionh. Thesis makes the reader expect a different argument than you give them in
the body paragraphsi. Thesis could be articulated in a less combative wayj. More justification is needed here of the texts you’re using and/or the
approach you’re taking
1. More paragraphs are needed to do justice to your argument2. Transition claims should relate more clearly to the thesis3. This transition claim feels mechanical (“Another theme…,” “Also…,” “The
first…The second…The third…”)4. Transition claims have problems as claims5. Repetition on paragraph level6. The organization of the paper becomes unclear at this point
1. The conclusion should never begin with the words “In conclusion…”2. Good summary, but this conclusion needs to add much more to what you’ve
argued in the introduction and body paragraphs3. Try to limit your summary to the first sentence or two4. This conclusion could use a sentence or two of summary at the beginning5. Some “food for thought,” some ideas for future exploration of the problem are
needed here6. Future costs/benefits would be useful at this point7. A good quote or other kind of memorable statement would help at the very
1. This statement ought to be a claim, but is really a fact—it should be made
more debatable
a. Plot summary: These statements would not be disputed by the average
intelligent reader of the text, and thus do not count as part of your argumentb. While at one point this statement might have been considered controversial,
it would now accepted as true by the majority of scholars/readers and should
thus be rendered more debatable
2. This claim is extremely difficult or impossible to support with evidence3. This claim is not strictly literary: it should center on the text itself rather
than on the world outside the text4. This claim is not manageable: it would take much more evidence to defend
than you can marshal within the scope of this assignment5. This claim is not expandable: as currently phrased, it does not lead logically
to other claims and further evidence 6. Additional claims are needed to analyze this evidence7. This claim should be transformed into a definitional or value claim8. This claim badly needs more evidence to support it9. This claim doesn’t absolutely need evidence to prove it, but some evidence
would nonetheless be useful for purposes of illustration10. This is a good claim, but how does it fit in with your thesis and transition
claims? The links between those claims and this one need to be clarified and
strengthened11. This claim should be phrased more strongly, with a greater sense of
commitment12. This claim should be toned down a bit to avoid distracting readers from the
main argument13. Paradox: Here you need to point out that you’re dealing with a contradiction
in the text rather than in your own reasoning about it14. Contradiction: As currently framed this claim appears to contradict…
a. your main argumentb. local claims in this part of the paperc. local claims in another part of the paper
15. This is an extremely provocative claim, and deserves to be developed
further through subclaims and more evidence16. Here the paper confuses the author with the character17. Is this what you want to argue, or what the author or text seems to be
arguing? Please clarify18. Fallacy: Here the essay is committing the logical error known as
a. Arguing from ignoranceb. Begging the questionc. Setting up a “straw man”d. Engaging in an ad hominem attacke. Accident/converse accidentf. False causeg. Appealing to pity, force, “the bandwagon”
1. Tautology: You’ve confused cause and effect, or attempted to justify your
claim by simply repeating it in different words2. Non sequitur: This reason does not make sense in the context of the claim to
which it is attached3. This reason does not really need to be stated, or should only be stated
explicitly with a qualifier like “Obviously…” to modify it
1. Sweeping: Readers are likely to find the values/assumptions underlying this
argument overly harsh or inappropriate in this context2. Irrelevant: When you try to state the principle that links your claim with
your reason it doesn’t make sense 3. Wrong: The majority of intelligent readers will find it impossible to accept
the principle upon which you’ve based this argument. 4. Non-academic: The values underlying this argument would be appropriate
in a non-literary (i.e. religious, scientific, legal, and so on) context, but should
be expressed through different claims and reasons here with a literary-critical
audience in mind
1. Precise
a. Please quote this sentence/passage directly instead of paraphrasing itb. Please supply a more exact date or set of dates herec. At what point in the text does this happen? Please specifyd. Here it would be useful to supply some publication or textual history
information (date of first publication, popularity of the book, whether it’s in or
out of print now, and so forth)e. Provide the full name of this personf. Closer attention to the text’s diction, tone, and literary devices is needed
hereg. It seems that you should be able to draw a more explicit connection here
2. Accurate
a. This sentence/passage contains one or more errors in transcriptionb. Use backslashes (/) to indicate line divisions in the poetry you’re citingc. Cite the line/page number(s) here even though you’re paraphrasingd. This name is misspelled or transcribed incorrectlye. Incorrect genre of the text you’re discussingf. Italicize or underline titles of books; place titles of articles, short stories, or
poems in quotation marks g. Incorrect dateh. Incorrect/missing page number(s)i. Incorrect presentation of the plot of this section of the bookj. Incorrect presentation of character motivationk. Incorrect details from author’s biographyl. Other misinterpreted detail from textm. Incorrect use of MLA or other citation style: please consult the MLA Style
Manual, Diana Hacker’s Bedford Handbook or her Web site at, or another reputable style and grammar guide
of your choicen. Error(s) in punctuation or capitalization of evidenceo. Use present tense most of the time when discussing character actions, what
critics have said about the book, and what words the author has inscribed on
the pagep. Use past tense when discussing historical events q. Use brackets to make this sentence/passage fit the tense or grammatical
structure of your analysisr. Use ellipsis (…) to remove unneeded parts of this passages. These lines should be converted into an independent paragraph set off from
the rest of the text and (possibly) set in a smaller font size
3. Representative
a. These passages/texts differ too much to be compared like this, unless you
provide more justification for doing sob. You’ve failed to mention an important passage that most readers would
assume to contradict your argument herec. This line/passage constitutes an anomaly in the text and should be treated
as such d. You’ve placed too much argumentative weight on this one line/passagee. Historical evidence that is overgeneralized from and/or doesn’t apply here;
please qualify this or stick to evidence directly from the book
4. Sufficient
a. Several more pieces of evidence are needed to support this
complex/controversial claimb. This evidence has been dropped into the text without being introduced and
analyzed adequatelyc. At least one other critic deserves recognition here in addition to this oned. More critical support from other sources is needed heree. Introduce this source more fully, providing the author’s name and (when
applicable, and as briefly as possible) the name of the text and your reasons for
using it when you first bring it upf. It would be wise to compare this passage briefly with similar ones to
demonstrate that you’ve discovered a patterng. You’re “gilding the lily,” offering more evidence than is required to support
this claimh. Unnecessary repetition of evidencei. This evidence actually contradicts the claim it’s intended to supportj. This evidence does not seem relevant to your argumentk. Closer attention to subtle detail is needed herel. Overreading/overliteralization: More evidence is needed to show that this
detail actually symbolizes something elsem. It’s surprising that you’ve left out an important piece of evidence here that
would further support your argumentn. Pay more attention to the context/tone/rhetoric (who? why? when? where?)
of this quoteo. A brief synopsis from your perspective, integrated as fully as possible into
your argument, would be helpful here
5. Authoritative
a. This person is not an authority in literary matters, a fact that should be
acknowledged openly as you simultaneously justify quoting him/herb. This scholar or commentator’s work does not meet desirable standards;
quoting him/her could damage your argument in the eyes of many readersc. Don’t let this authority do your argumentative work for you; show clearly
from the beginning how you’re building on or modifying their workd. A more current source should be located, or an explanation should be
provided for the age of this sourcee. This source should be used to find more advanced sources and should not be
quoted in your paperf. Try using the Oxford English Dictionary to define this word/conceptg. This source’s integrity seems compromised by commercial, religious,
political, or other ulterior motives h. The author may be trying to mislead us in this quote i. Don’t focus on the trouble you had finding or understanding this source
unless it’s relevant to your argumentj. Plagiarism (adapted from Barnet, Stubbs, and Bellanca’s The Practical Guide
to Writing [New York: Longman, 2000] 318-20)
1. Type 1: Cutting and pasting, no acknowledgment2. Type 2: Paraphrasing word-for-word, no acknowledgment3. Type 3: Dropping a quote, acknowledgment at end4. Type 4: Cutting and pasting, acknowledgment at end5. Type 5: Summarizing an idea, no acknowledgment
k. Mention the editor’s footnote here
1. It is important at this point, after making a strong claim, to show that you’ve
considered alternative claims and have decided on your way of seeing things
because…(you fill in the blanks!)2. A coordinating conjunction like “but” or “and yet,” or a conjunctive adverb
like “however” or “nevertheless,” would help to more clearly signal your
response here3. At least two or three sentences of acknowledgment and response, possibly an
entire paragraph, are needed at this point4. Here the acknowledgment of and response to another critic threatens to
overwhelm your own argument: you should either reconsider your position
(and thus rearticulate it throughout the paper) or do more to unsettle these
alternative claims
1. This word is misused—please check the dictionary/thesaurus2. A more accurate or less distracting word could be used for this
a. This is a loaded critical term with a long history that must be acknowledged
if you want to use it; otherwise, simply replace it with something less
problematic b. This usage seems awkward
3. Please define/use this word/concept more clearly4. Simpler words could be found to express this concept5. Right spelling, but wrong word (Spell-Check problem)6. The grammatical subjects of sentences change too many times in this
paragraph, making it hard to determine what the “story” is7. The passive voice is used too much in this section8. Use more action verbs instead of “to be”9. Unnecessary repetition of words (use thesaurus to identify synonyms)10. Unnecessary repetition of ideas or sentences11. Length of sentences should be varied (too many consecutive long or short
sentences)12. The paragraph needs to be broken up here13. Fragment(s)14. Run-on(s)15. Unnecessary harshness of diction or tone16. Overly informal style here17. Avoid this cliché/dead metaphor18. Straighten out this metaphor19. “English Majorese”20. The style here is more appropriate to a different kind of writing (scientific,
religious, philosophical, and so forth)21. Problems with subject-verb agreement22. Unnecessary hyperbole23. Too much “old information”24. Too much “new information”25. Jargon needs to be simplified, explained for current audience26. Wordy: trim away superfluous words27. “Jingly,” gimmicky28. Sexist/racist/ageist/speciesist language29. This passage should be cut with brevity in mind30. Include this information in a footnote or endnote rather than the main
body of the text31. Punctuation
a. Comma neededb. Unnecessary commac. Colon neededd. Semicolon needede. Apostrophe neededf. Apostrophe not neededg. Quotation marks needed
32. Preposition trouble33. Missing word(s)
Literary Evidence and the P.A.R.S.A. Test Literary evidence, like all other kinds of evidence, must meet certain criteria
to be considered valid by readers (i.e., to provide adequate support for the
claims to which it is attached). Standards of evidence change according to a)
the extent to which you’re trying to change your reader’s thinking on a given
topic and b) the degree to which readers have a stake in accepting or rejecting
your argument, but one truth remains constant: if you don’t use evidence that
your readers judge to be Precise, Accurate, Representative, Sufficient, and
Authoritative (P.A.R.S.A.), they will generally find it difficult to trust you as a
writer and accept your claims, sometimes even when their views closely
parallel your own. Good evidence convinces readers that you know what you’re
talking about and that your claims are worth entertaining; even if your
readers ultimately disagree with some of the conclusions you draw, the quality
of your evidence can persuade them to consider possibilities they might
previously have rejected. And some kinds of evidence are powerful enough to
change the reader’s entire way of reading literature—or seeing the world. Keep these P.A.R.S.A. criteria in mind whenever you supply or read a piece of
evidence, asking yourself whether the evidence adequately supports the
claim(s) it is meant to justify. Remember that the stronger a writer’s claims
are, and the more his or her readers have at stake in the issue, the more
compelling and unassailable the writer’s evidence has to be. P. Evidence Must Be Precise Many arguments about literature hinge on questions of definition and history:
the setting (or moving) of cultural and chronological boundaries, the
explanation of complex movements and social phenomena, the delineation of
the meaning of literary key words like “tragedy,” “modernism,” or “sympathy.”
Other arguments focus on questions of fact: when, where, why, and/or by whom
a particular text was written, which version of the text was written first or
last, or whether a certain word was added by the author, the editor, or someone
else. Many other arguments deal with problems of ethics, value, and function:
why authors make certain choices, what effects those choices have on readers,
and how authors, texts, cultures, and readers interact to produce a certain
range of meanings. Each of these types of argument calls for a high degree of
precision in the evidence used, involving not so much the correctness (see
Accuracy) as the exactness of the evidence, its attention to detail and its strict
confinement within the narrowest possible definitional boundaries. It would
be perfectly accurate, for instance, to write that “Willa Cather’s My Ántonia
was published in the early twentieth century, a time of great controversy” but
consider how much more precise the following statement would be: “Willa
Cather’s My Ántonia was published in 1918, a year that saw furious debate over
immigration and the nature of American identity at home while the first
truly global war raged abroad.” As long as the information you supply is
relevant to your argument, you greatly boost the credibility of your claims by
supporting them with solid facts and interesting details instead of vague
generalizations. Other Examples: (Precise) Izaak Walton, Donne’s friend and biographer, claims that the poet
addressed “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” to his wife, Ann, in 1611, ten
years after their clandestine marriage. The occasion was a voyage Donne was
forced to make to the Continent in order to... (Less Precise) It has been claimed that Donne wrote “A Valediction: Forbidding
Mourning” to his wife a few years after their marriage, on the verge of an
extended absence.A. Evidence Must Be Accurate Before readers even begin to consider whether your evidence is Precise,
Representative, Sufficient, or Authoritative, they will start to form an opinion
about your evidence’s accuracy. Typographical errors or mishandled quotes of
any kind weaken your credibility, planting doubts about the validity of your
claims—and your own integrity as a thinker, researcher, and writer—in your
readers’ minds. Double check all quotes and have a friend proofread your work,
keeping in mind that modern word processing programs can incorrectly “fix”
unusual spellings or typographical conventions that may be integral to the
meaning of a cited passage—and which, even if they don’t seem important,
must be reproduced accurately to demonstrate that you’ve paid careful
attention to the text. Use a reputable style manual such as Diana Hacker’s
Bedford Handbook to ensure that your quotes conform to the required citation
format, whether MLA (Modern Language Association), Chicago (The Chicago
Manual of Style) or another widely accepted system. Educate yourself
about—and scrupulously avoid!—the different kinds of plagiarism, especially
forms of intellectual theft more subtle than outright cutting and pasting
without due acknowledgment. When you need to alter a passage
grammatically or introduce some other kind of editorial emendation, use
standard marks like the brackets ([ ]) and ellipsis (…) to show that your
alterations are intentional, e.g. “Melville writes at the end of the chapter
‘Stubb kills a Whale’ that the mate ‘scatter[s] the dead ashes [of his pipe] over
the water…thoughtfully eyeing the vast corpse he ha[s] made’ (Moby-Dick 233).”
When you want to preserve a misspelling or other kind of error in the original
text, use the word “sic” at the end of the quotation, e.g. “In a famous 1929 letter
to Ben Wasson, Faulkner writes, ‘Excuse recent letter. Didnt mean to be
stubborn and inconsiderate. Believe I am right, tho’ [sic] (Selected Letters 45).” Other examples: (Accurate) In lines 3-4 of our edition of John Donne’s “Song,” the speaker
admonishes his audience to “Tell [him]/…who cleft the devil’s foot[.]” (Less accurate) In lines 34 of the poem Song, John Done admonished his
audience to tell him who cleft Satan’s foot. R. Evidence Must Be Representative It can sometimes be tempting to avoid mentioning pieces of evidence that
contradict your claims, to examine a piece of evidence out of context in order to
defend a claim that you want to believe even if the author doesn’t seem to
agree with you, or to base an interesting generalization about the book on one
passage that, however provocative, does not adequately epitomize the nature
of the whole text. Academic honesty demands that you avoid these
temptations, addressing potential conflicts in evidence openly and showing
clearly how the evidence you quote fits in context. It is especially important to
keep clear whose intentions are being represented in a given passage, avoiding
the common tendency (for instance) to conflate a fictional character’s
statements with the meanings its author is trying to produce, à la “Mark
Twain’s use of the ‘N word’ in this passage obviously proves that he was a
racist” instead of the more representative “Huckleberry Finn’s strange use of
the ‘N word’ in this passage brings into stark relief the question of Mark
Twain’s possible sympathy with his protagonist’s racist leanings.” Other examples:(Representative) Donne’s line “Teach me to hear mermaids singing” (5) in
“Song” is one more example of an impossible action, leading up to the ultimate
impossibility: that of finding a completely “true” and “fair” woman (l. 18).(Less representative) Since mermaids, along with dragons and unicorns, were
widely believed to exist in Jacobean times, Donne’s line “Teach me to hear
mermaids singing” (5) in “Song” actually holds out the possibility that a
completely “true and fair” woman might exist (l. 18). S. Evidence Must Be SufficientIn order to accept a claim, readers must feel certain that they have been given
enough precise, accurate, representative, and authoritative evidence upon
which to base their decision. How much evidence counts as “enough” clearly
depends on the relative strength of your claims and the degree to which your
reader is already inclined to accept or reject them, along with the type of
argument you’re producing; again, the greater the degree of change you’re
advocating in your reader’s way of thinking about the issue, the more pieces of
evidence you’ll need to muster. Some vast and controversial claims (such as
William Cronon’s famous “The time has come to rethink wilderness”) may need
to be supported with dozens, hundreds, or thousands of pieces of evidence,
whereas some claims are so relatively unproblematic—in other words so close
to facts—that a couple of simple illustrations of the claim may suffice. Don’t be
fooled into thinking that there’s a strict one-to-one correspondence between
claims and evidence; every piece of evidence in a 20-page paper, after all, is
ultimately offered in support of one overarching thesis, and in general the
more evidence you introduce the stronger your paper will be.“Can you have too much evidence, though?” This problem is rarely
encountered in undergraduate essays. Far more common is the paucity of
evidence, a problem that irreparably damages your argument because it
provides the reader with no reason to accept your claims. Until someone warns
you that you’re going overboard, make every paper bristle with quotation
marks and page numbers, giving your readers every possible incentive to trust
your argument. When in doubt, quote it. Literary examples: (Sufficient) Pound’s description of the bough as “wet,” “black,” and possessed of
“Petals” (l. 2) indicates that the metaphor is taken from springtime.(Less sufficient) Pound’s description of the bough as “wet,” “black” and
possessed of “Petals” (l. 2) indicates that not only is this a poem about
springtime, but that it deals with the abduction of Persephone by the lord of
the underworld, a place represented in the poem by the noise- and smoke-filled
space of the literal “Underground,” the Metro. A. Evidence Must Be Authoritative A few years ago television viewers across the country had to endure a
painkiller commercial that began with a soap opera star dressed in a doctor’s
costume saying “I’m not a doctor, but I play one on T.V…” Viewers may not have
been able to explain what exactly bothered them about the commercial, but
they knew that it had a different effect from what its makers intended: it made
them not want to buy the painkiller rather than vice versa. Here’s why. Any
evidence the spokesperson supplied for the painkiller’s effectiveness in that
commercial—however scientifically valid—was immediately tainted by his
admission that he didn’t know what he was talking about, that he wasn’t a real
authority in the field of medicine. Similarly, but in less obvious ways, you can
damage the strength of your argument by applying evidence considered valid
in one field to another field in which it is not considered valid, by citing
authors within the appropriate field whose work has nonetheless been
discredited, or by using sources your readers are likely to consider outdated,
biased, inaccurate, misleading, overly simplistic, or otherwise not up to the
standards of a college-level essay. You essentially tell the reader, “This isn’t a
valid argument, but it plays one on T.V…”It can be tricky discerning between authoritative and less authoritative
sources when you’re just starting out in a given field, but certain questions can
help evaluate any source. First of all, if you’re citing a scholarly book, was it
published by a major university press (Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Columbia,
University of California, and so forth)? Has the author published other books or
scholarly articles in this field? (Remember that this is no guarantee of
authoritativeness—the literary critic Harold Bloom, for instance, is a hugely
prolific author and editor but is no longer considered a leading scholar by
many of the people in his field). What do reviewers say about her or him? What
does your teacher think of the author? (Ask me!) If your source is a magazine or
journal, is it one subscribed to by your university library? Is it one readily
available in the check-out line at grocery stores? (If so, don’t use it unless
you’re writing a scholarly/critical analysis of popular culture). If it’s a Web
site, do you know the names of the Webmaster and author of the article you’re
citing? How recently was the site updated? How does the evidence they produce
stand up to the P. A. R. S. A. test? Is the site affiliated with a university course,
university library, humanities center, or other scholarly institution? (If not,
please consider scrapping it). Some more general questions: Do you have any
reason to believe your source’s integrity has been compromised by ulterior
commercial, political, religious or other motives? Is the source’s language
marred by racism, misogyny, anti-Semitism, or other forms of hate speech?
Would your source (e.g., Microsoft Encarta) be considered a good source for
middle school or high school students but not for college-level work? (If so, go
ahead and use the source as a tool to find more advanced sources, but do not
cite the more basic source in your paper—it damages your credibility). An important note respecting literary evidence: Students are often inclined to
view the author of a text as the ultimate authority as to what it means. This is
completely understandable, not least of all because of the shared etymology
and philosophical history of the words “author” and “authority,” but it can
lead you into dangerous territory. Authors can have any number of reasons for
misrepresenting their texts and misleading their interviewers, and their
memories are generally as faulty as everyone else’s. Should you avoid using
quotes about texts by their authors, then? Not at all—the author can indeed
offer incredibly important and rich sources of insight into the text under
discussion. Always be on your guard, though, remembering not to mistake an
author’s private interpretations of a public text for “the gospel truth.” Literary examples:(Authoritative): In The Dance of the Intellect, Marjorie Perloff [a leading
scholar of 20th-century poetry] writes of “This Is Just to Say” that Williams
“mistakes sight for sound,” confusing his poem’s typographic symmetries for
metrical regularity (97). (Less authoritative): In a 1950 interview with John W. Gerber, when asked what
it is that makes “This Is Just to Say” a poem, Williams replied, “In the first
place, it is metrically absolutely regular…So, dogmatically speaking, it has to
be a poem because it goes that way, don’t you see!” (Gerber 227). In what ways is
the poem “metrically absolutely regular,” then? First of all,…
Literary Essay Critique Sheet (Welling)
Author’s Name:
Paper Number and Title:
Disagree Agree
The title grabs my attention (in a good way), 1 2 3 4 5encapsulates the author’s argument, and tells me what text(s) will be discussed
The Stable Context provides an adequate back- 1 2 3 4 5ground to the Problem in a short space (no “Dawn of Time” statements)
The Destabilizing Element (central problem) is 1 2 3 4 5compelling and original
The author introduces this central problem 1 2 3 4 5within the first few sentences of the paper
The author uses Costs/Benefits language skill- 1 2 3 4 5 fully to make me care about the problem and want to learn how to solve it
The Thesis a) sketches out a likely solution to 1 2 3 4 5the central problem; b) offers adequate detailsas to how the paper will go about solving it
The author builds an argument based on 1 2 3 4 5debatable but supportable claims rather than facts, personal opinion, invalid authorities, etc.
Each body paragraph begins and ends with a 1 2 3 4 5strong claim that refers back to the thesis
The author assumes that the reader knows the 1 2 3 4 5texts under discussion: minimal plot summary The paper avoids errors in logic (fallacies) 1 2 3 4 5
The conclusion provides a clear summary, but, 1 2 3 4 5even better, addresses future possibilities
Evidence and Analysis
Each claim is backed up with at least one piece 1 2 3 4 5of evidence—or more, based on debatability
All evidence meets the P. A. R. S. A. test 1 2 3 4 5
Each piece of evidence is analyzed sufficiently 1 2 3 4 5
The paper acknowledges and deals squarely 1 2 3 4 5with pieces of evidence that appear to contradictits argument
The author has incorporated an adequate range 1 2 3 4 5 of types of evidence and analysis
The paper cites any outside critics appropriately 1 2 3 4 5(introduction, context, analysis) and gives them due credit (no plagiarism)
Style and Visual Rhetoric
The essay conforms to the physical standards 1 2 3 4 5outlined on the syllabus
The organization of the paper makes good log- 1 2 3 4 5ical (rather than purely mechanical) sense
The author has avoided stock phrases (“Through- 1 2 3 4 5out history,” “In conclusion”) and other clichés
The author expresses complex ideas simply 1 2 3 4 5
The author writes clearly and engagingly 1 2 3 4 5
The paper is free of errors in spelling, grammar, 1 2 3 4 5punctuation, and typography
Grade: ______________
Scholarly/Critical Problems Worth Thinking and Writing AboutAdapted from a handout by the University of Virginia Writing Program
Any work of literature, however short or apparently unproblematic, can raise
a potentially infinite number of questions about itself, about literature in
general, and about its readers (i.e., us) when we submit it to close enough
scrutiny. The trick is to hone in on questions that 1. are original and
thought-provoking; 2. carry major implications for our reading of this and/or
other text(s); 3. don’t inspire simplistic or trivial answers; 4. are manageable,
i.e., not too huge to be dealt with adequately within the scope of a given project;
5. engage in vital and ethical ways with questions that have been asked about
the text by other readers; and 6. (to sum up) make your reader/listener hungry
for answers. Here are just a few problem-phrases that have proven useful in
the past, as well as things to look for as you prepare to think or write about any
particular text, literary, critical, or otherwise:
Bibliographic features normally ignored (such as binding, paper choice,
typeface, even bar code) that turn out, in this case, to be significant
Textual instability (between print editions, between MS and published version,
Discrepancies between author’s public and private statements about the text
Dangerous or misleading stereotypes (on author’s part or on critics’)
Controversial portrayals of religion, democracy, other institutions
Equally persuasive but contradictory interpretive possibilities
Gaps between author’s intentions and the “finished product”
Unexplored middle ground between extreme approaches
Neglected theme/character/chapter in a major text
Politically/racially/sexually motivated misreadings
Unconventional approach to gender roles, sexuality
Difference in opinion between author and readers
What seems like nonsense is actually meaningful
Breaches of ethics, morality, common sense
Plagiarism, forgery, copyright infringement
Traps laid for inattentive readers by author
Newly uncovered or rediscovered sources
Extreme violence or “big time sensuality”
Slippage between myth and reality
“Cheating” or rule-breaking by the author
Abrupt shifts in style, tone, voice, theme
Gaps between narrator/author/character
An overlooked connection or disjunction
Unexplained differences or similarities
“Good” authors producing “bad” texts
Unjustly ignored text/author/tradition
Unstudied borrowings or parallels
Unconsidered historical problems
“Errors” that aren’t really errors
What seems to be the case isn’t
Misunderstood uses of irony
Passages that don’t seem to fit
Unusual spellings, typography
Difficulties in interpretation
Counterproductive trends
Unquestioned assumptions
Unacceptable status quo
Deceptive appearances
Blurring of boundaries
An unexplored pattern
Unresolved tensions
Alternative endings
Gap in knowledge
Hidden agendas
Mixed messages
Some examples of problems at work in academic essays I’ve written:
From an essay on the Terry Tempest Williams book Leap (2000):
Difficulties in interpretation: “As even its more sympathetic readers have
acknowledged, Terry Tempest Williams’s Leap poses serious interpretive
challenges to its diverse audience—challenges as daunting, in their way, as
those facing viewers of the Hieronymus Bosch triptych, The Garden of Delights,
upon which the book literally and metaphorically hinges. What are critics of
Bosch to make of the book’s blending of scholarship and mystical response,
precise natural history and visionary aesthetics? Where do
environmentally-oriented literary critics place a text so torn, it seems,
between the categories Art and Wilderness? What is any reader to make of this
apparent jumble of criticism and memoir, republished and original material,
graphic and literary art, scripture and graffiti?”
From an essay on a group of books belonging to William Faulkner:
Newly uncovered or rediscovered sources: “…The standard source of evidence on
Faulkner’s reading for over thirty years, Joseph Blotner’s William Faulkner’s
Library: A Catalogue, at first confirmed the sense of disappointment, the
absence of new ‘finds’ or new insights. Within a very short time, however, both
the limitations of Blotner’s Catalogue and the surprising strengths of the new
collection began to come to light. Questionable publication and autograph
dates which had been reprinted matter-of-factly in the Catalogue demanded
reevaluation. A sizeable number of inscriptions and signatures omitted in the
Catalogue, or mentioned but not transcribed, started to emerge. And then
there were the books not mentioned at all…”
From an essay on Thomas More’s Utopia:
Unconsidered historical problems: “…Approaching Utopia almost five hundred
years after its publication, it is all too easy for modern readers to be seduced by
the surface distances between the author’s world and the world he creates in
his fiction. We may take Hythlodaeus’s statement seriously, for instance, that
“[the Utopians’] part of the word…is diametrically opposed to ours, no less in a
social and moral than in a geographical sense…” (108). On an island on the
other side of the world, far from direct contact with England, the Utopians have
seemingly found a cure for every ill plaguing English society, an antipodean
virtue to counter every English vice. To his contemporaries, however, More’s
Utopia would have represented not a straight political sermon, but a more
complex form of commentary…”
From an essay on Olive Schreiner’s novel The Story of an African Farm:
Unconventional approach to gender roles/sexuality: “Few Victorian novels
seem to present as confused and confusing a landscape of gender and sexuality
at first glance as that painted by Olive Schreiner in The Story of an African
Farm. Tant’ Sannie, the female character who would seem to have the greatest
chance at the outset of becoming a nurturing matriarchal presence, reveals
herself throughout to be more of a wolf spider, waiting to trap one of the
suitors who buzz around her precisely like ‘flies’ (116) [Other
examples]…Schreiner relates all of this to her reader in a curious storytelling
mode which itself partakes of the sexual conflicts and ambivalences it
From an essay on Cormac McCarthy’s Blood Meridian:
Extreme violence: “Cormac McCarthy’s Blood Meridian goes farther than
practically any other novel towards ‘hacking…chopping…ripping [and] gutting’
(54) to death any illusions the reader might hold about the history of the
American West. Instead of the West which historian Frederick Jackson Turner
envisioned as the fecund site of ‘perennial rebirth’ (Turner 61), McCarthy’s
frontier is a nightmare zone where newborn stock animals are immediately
eaten and babies are skewered on trees…McCarthy shreds to pieces the notion
that movement westward or in any other direction equates with progress…”
From an essay comparing Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe and “Jonathan Wild”:
Mixed messages: “On the first reading, Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe and
‘Jonathan Wild’ can both seem confusingly divided works. In Crusoe, to begin
with, Defoe often seems to find himself caught between two conflicting
authorial imperatives. On the one hand he wants to create a moral tale about
the dangers of leaving the peacefully mediocre “middle Station of life” (8) to
which Providence wisely consigns people like Robinson. On the other hand,
however, he needs to craft a ripping good adventure story…Similarly,
‘Jonathan Wild’ seems to embody two narrative impulses working at
From an essay on James Joyce’s Ulysses:
Understudied connections: “James Joyce’s Ulysses invites, in fact demands,
critical elucidation of its almost always tangled correspondences to its Homeric
precursors. But from its first publication a number of commentators sought to
place the novel in a context closer to home, historically as well as
geographically. In particular, such readers as Ezra Pound, Valery Larbaud,
and Wyndham Lewis began early on to note Joyce’s affinities to another
expatriate Irish author of parodic and semiautobiographical fictions: Laurence
From the prospectus for a book on William Faulkner:
Neglected theme in a set of major texts: “Since 1920, when one of William
Faulkner’s first ‘critics’ mocked the would-be nature poet in the pages of a
student newspaper at the University of Mississippi, students of his work have
struggled to find a language capable of defining Faulkner’s complex and
ever-changing vision of the natural world. However personally sensitive
Faulkner’s readers might have been to the presence of nature in his works,
their published readings of his version of nature serve as reference points in
what might be called a ‘non-tradition’ in twentieth-century criticism. Nature
itself—as construct, as ground of being, as explanatory element in his tangled
geometries of race and gender—occupies a kind of absent center in the
Faulknerian critical universe. ‘The Book’ on ‘Faulkner and Nature’ clearly has
yet to be written.” 78229007 [?]Analyzing The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test [?]Order Type: Term Paper [?]Academic level: Compensation per page: $4.52 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 2:16 [?] Total: $22.6 [?] Number of sources: 2 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 3 days Time remaining: 2 days 10 hours 50 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
This paper is an analysis the three sociological concepts such as: culture,
deviance and comformity, and social structure, of the ELECTRIC KOOL-AID ACID
TEST by Tom Wolfe. The entire paper must have a functionalist perspective
that ties it all together. Sources must be used from Tom Wolfes book.
Additional actions
71228243 [?]Social Psyc Field Experience & Research Paper [?]Order Type: Research Paper [?]Academic level: UndergraduateCompensation per page: $5.7 [?] Number of pages: 5 (Double Spaced) [?]
Deadline: December 1 5:21 [?] Total: $28.5 [?] Number of sources: 6 [?] Style: APA [?] Urgency: 5 days Time remaining: 2 days 14 hours 4 minutes Status: Order is available
Messages: 0 [?] Files: 1 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.)
In this research paper, you will need to break the social norms and observe how
people response. The main purpose is to get an idea of what has been studied
before and offer explanations for what you found in your field experience. Then
apply the various social psychology theories that are on `Elliot Aronson, et al.
Social Psychology, 3rd Canadian edition. Prentice Hall` into this research
paper. You will need to focus on two experiments:First, paying with a lot of coins (a lot of one cents and 5 cents) when shopping at
the stores and seeing the reactions of the cashiers or people who behind you. Second, standing in an elevator and facing the back. You will need to face the
back of the elevator yourself and see how others react. Then, you will ask
friends to do the same thing with you (4-5 people and see if others change their
behavior with you guys.)Now look at the research and integrate it into your findings as per the
following instructions:Through-out the textbook and within the academic research, various social
psychology theories can be studied in the field. Remember this is a field
experience research paper, your job is to go into the field (breaking those two
social norms) and conduct an observational type of study. -You will need a title page in APA style, an optional table of contents, separate
reference pages in full APA style.-You will write a 5 pages paper (excluding references, title page etc) on this
topic and its application in the real world. You may use subheadings within
each section if you feel it helps to organize your paper. Begin with a short
introduction to your topic, and then a brief (ie. no more than one page)
outlining your field experience (ie. what you did, where, how). The remainder
of your paper will be based on an integrated review of the literature as it
pertains to this topic (ie. what does the research say about the topic and/or
field experience?) -You must include at least SIX (6) academic journal articles that are related to
this field experience research paper. Do not use theoretical research papers
(those that do not carry out an experimental study). -You must act like you do not know you were there when you are doing this
experience research because you are just observing or ‘people-watching. You
need to note how the individuals you are observing behave, speak, and/or
express emotions in the context/social situation you are examining from the
vantage point that you might have.-You may tie in your practical experiences through-out this review to explain
points or provide examples in relation to the literature findings. -You may compare and contrast your findings with the literature, critique the
findings, offer ideas about why they might be different, other influencing
factors etc. -You must understand the meaning of what was found and find some
commonalities with other findings so that you have a fluid overview of the
topic with various points inserted based on the literature from several sources.
I will also upload the instruction.


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.” My personal thoughts on this book "The Late bus" by Rick Jasper, overall are that even though I thought it was a good book, there wasn't really one main solid theme to the story plot which can be first identified by the reader, and then used by the reader in such a way that they can find some sort pf resemblance to the reader's daily life.

how can I reword this better?